That is beyond the scope of this guide. It is also not very common.
Most likely, the 7-bit address plus the 1-bit read/write are being combined and treated as two separate 8-bit addresses. One for reading. One for writing. It's just a different way of thinking of the first byte (8 bits) sent after the start condition.
For other cases, it may be multiple targets buried in one chip. Each target has its own address in the normal fashion.
Yes. No. Maybe? Checkout this issue thread.