The BMP085 and BMP180 are no longer made, please check out the BMP280 - we have Python code examples here https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-bmp280-barometric-pressure-plus-temperature-sensor-breakout
Make sure that you connect the VIN pin on the BMP sensor to 3V3, NOT 5V0! Connecting VIN to the 5V supply will cause the board to use 5V logic, which is perfect for the Arduino, but may damage the sensitive 3.3V inputs on the Raspberry Pi.
Make sure you aren't using any device tree overlays which might interfere with the I2C pins. By default the standard device tree setup of the Debian distribution should expose the I2C bus 1 connections above without any extra work required.
Make sure you connect the VIN pin of the BMP sensor to the Beaglebone Black's 3.3 volt power rail, NOT the 5 volt power rail!