Overview

Way cheaper than a guard dog who can use an iPhone, this project will show you how you can use an Adafruit HUZZAH ESP8266 WiFi microcontroller board with a door sensor to email/tweet/text you when your door has opened!

Adafruit.io + IFTTT

This tutorial will show building a full IoT project using Adafruit.IO and a Huzzah board, adding sensors, and then connecting it to IFTTT (if-this-then-that) an API gateway that can communicate with adafruit.io to give your project tons of connectivity options

Wiring

Our schematic is fairly simple, we will have one pin (GPIO #13) monitor the door sensor.

Low Power Usage

We can put the ESP8266 in low power mode and then 'wake up' every few seconds. This is way better for battery life than just keep the ESP8266 awake forever. To do that, tie pin GPIO #16 to the RST pin, that way the auto-wakeup will work.

Battery tracking

We will also keep track of the battery level by creating a high-resistor-divider on VBat to reduce the voltage of the battery from 220KΩ/1220KΩ = 1/5.5 times.  This means a max voltage of the battery (4.2V) is 0.75V, well within the range of the ESP8266's 1.0V-max ADC

Note that even with low-power sleeping, this setup draws about 20mA on average!
  • Pin 16 to RST (this lets us use the low power mode)
  • Pin 13 to one side of door sensor
  • GND to opposite side of door sensor
  • VBat to the battery +
  • GND to battery -
  • GND to one side of the 220kΩ resistor
  • VBat to one side of the 1MΩ resistor
  • Pin A to the opposite side of  the 1MΩ resistor and 220kΩ resistor

Adafruit IO Setup

Before you even upload code to the arduino, you'll need to get your IO account going - that way you can properly test your code and connection!

The first thing you will need to do is to login to your Adafruit IO account and get your Adafruit IO Key if you haven't already. Click the AIO KEY button on the right hand side of the window, to access your key.

A window will pop up with your Adafruit IO key. Keep a copy of this in a safe place. We'll need it later. (Don't use the one in the image above, its not a real key, its just to indicate what the key looks like)

Creating the Feeds

You will now need to create feeds called "door" and "battery". If you need help getting started with creating feeds on Adafruit IO, check out the Adafruit IO Feed Basics guide.

Now you can start pushing data into the feeds, by wiring up and uploading the sketch to your Arduino!

Arduino Code

You will need the Adafruit IO Arduino library installed to compile the example sketch. The easiest way to install the library is by using the Arduino IDE v.1.6.4+ Library Manager, and searching for Adafruit IO Arduino.

You will also need to have the ESP8266 Arduino board package installed. For more info about installing the ESP8266 package, visit the HUZZAH ESP8266 setup guide.

http://arduino.esp8266.com/stable/package_esp8266com_index.json

Use the package index URL above to get the latest version of the ESP8266 package.

You must have your adafruit.io account set up first before you try to connect!

Arduino Sketch

The Arduino sketch for this project is fairly straight forward. If you haven't downloaded or cloned the Adafruit IO Basics GitHub repo, you should do that first. We will be using the trigger sketch located in the ESP8266 folder.

The first thing you will need to do is to edit the WiFi connection info at the top of the ESP8266 trigger sketch. You can use the same connection info you used when you tested your WiFi connection in the HUZZAH ESP8266 setup guide.

#define WLAN_SSID       "...your SSID..."
#define WLAN_PASS       "...your password..."

You will need to replace the Adafruit IO key placeholder in the sketch with the Adafruit IO key that you retrieved in the Adafruit IO Setup section of this guide.

#define AIO_KEY         "...your AIO key..."

By default, the sketch sends the battery level to Adafruit IO once every 5 minutes, and checks the state of the door once every 3 seconds. You can modify these intervals by changing the BATTERY_INTERVAL and SLEEP_LENGTH constants. Setting these constants to lower intervals will result in reduced battery life.

// how often to report battery level to adafruit IO (in minutes)
#define BATTERY_INTERVAL 5

// how long to sleep between checking the door state (in seconds)
#define SLEEP_LENGTH 3

The bulk of the work for this example happens in the setup() function. The sketch restarts after it wakes from sleep, so the main loop() never runs.

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);
  Serial.println("HUZZAH Trigger Basic");
  
  EEPROM.begin(512);
  pinMode(DOOR, INPUT_PULLUP);

  // get the current count position from eeprom
  byte battery_count = EEPROM.read(0);

  // we only need this to happen once every X minutes,
  // so we use eeprom to track the count between resets.
  if(battery_count >= ((BATTERY_INTERVAL * 60) / SLEEP_LENGTH)) {
    // reset counter
    battery_count = 0;
    // report battery level to Adafruit IO
    battery_level();
  } else {
    // increment counter
    battery_count++;
  }

  // save the current count
  EEPROM.write(0, battery_count);
  EEPROM.commit();

  // if door isn't open, we don't need to send anything
  if(digitalRead(DOOR) == LOW) {
    Serial.println("Door closed");
    // we don't do anything
  } else {
    // the door is open if we have reached here,
    // so we should send a value to Adafruit IO.
    Serial.println("Door is open!");
    door_open();
  }

  // we are done here. go back to sleep.
  Serial.println("zzzz");
  ESP.deepSleep(SLEEP_LENGTH * 1000000, WAKE_RF_DISABLED);
}

The code that sends the state of the door to Adafruit IO can be found in the door_open() function.

void door_open() {

  // turn on wifi if we aren't connected
  if(WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {
    wifi_init();
  }
  
  // grab the door feed
  Adafruit_IO_Feed door = aio.getFeed("door");

  Serial.println("Sending to Adafruit.io");
  // send door open value to AIO
  door.send("1");

}

The battery level is also sent to Adafruit IO once every 5 minutes. You can increase this interval using the BATTERY_INTERVAL constant, but it will reduce your battery life.

void battery_level() {

  // read the battery level from the ESP8266 analog in pin.
  // analog read level is 10 bit 0-1023 (0V-1V).
  // our 1M & 220K voltage divider takes the max
  // lipo value of 4.2V and drops it to 0.758V max.
  // this means our min analog read value should be 580 (3.14V)
  // and the max analog read value should be 774 (4.2V).
  int level = analogRead(A0);

  // convert battery level to percent
  level = map(level, 580, 774, 0, 100);
  Serial.print("Battery level: "); Serial.print(level); Serial.println("%");
  // turn on wifi if we aren't connected
  if(WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED)
    wifi_init();

  // grab the battery feed
  Adafruit_IO_Feed battery = aio.getFeed("battery");

  // send battery level to AIO
  battery.send(level);

}

Upload and Test!

OK now that you have everything wired up, and your adafruit.io account set up, upload the above sketch to your HUZZAH ESP8266 board via the FTDI cable or other serial connection.

After uploading, open up the serial port, you should see a long stream of text that looks like this:

What you're seeing is the HUZZAH reading the sensor (Door closed and Door is open!) and then going to sleep (the zzz text indicates its about to go into sleep mode. When the ESP8266 goes to sleep, it resets the board, and so the weird text after the 'zzz' is the reset debug string. Its normal but some terminal programs print it out a little differently.

This program only pushes data to the feed when the door is open, since that's a rare event. So when the door is closed, nothing 'happens'. When you remove the magnet half from the sensor half, you'll get that text that says the door is open, and it will connect to WiFi and update your feed

Log into your adafruit.io account and look at the door feed to see the messages as they are logged!

After 5 minutes, you'll also see the board measure the battery voltage and upload that to the seperate battery feed.

IFTTT <-> Adafruit.io

IFTTT Connection

OK don't forget you will have to visit ifttt.com and sign up for an account.

Once you have signed in, visit ifttt.com/adafruit and click the Connect button to connect your IFTTT account to Adafruit IO.

You will be redirected to your Adafruit account page, and will be asked to authorize IFTTT. Click the AUTHORIZE button to grant access.

You will then be redirected back to IFTTT, and should see a Channel connected! message at the top of the page.

Creating the IFTTT Recipe

Next, navigate to your personal IFTTT Recipes page to start the recipe creation process.

Click the Create a Recipe button.

Click the blue this block of text to get started.

Click on the Adafruit channel.

Click on Monitor a feed in Adafruit IO.

Select the battery feed from the dropdown, and make the relationship less than the value of 10. Click the Create Trigger button when finished.

Then, click the blue that block of text to select what happens when the battery level is low.

Next, choose an action to happen when the trigger activates. In this example, we will be sending an email.

Select the send me an email option.

Enter the subject and body messages that you would like sent to you when the trigger happens, and then click Create Action.

Edit the recipe title, and click Create Recipe to complete the process.

Next. Repeat the same process for the door feed, but instead of monitoring for specific values, choose to monitor for Any new data.

Your recipes are now finished and waiting for door and battery changes.

You will then be setup to receive IFTTT emails whenever someone opens the door!