There is an excellent I2C scanner sketch available from the old Arduino Playground here:

// --------------------------------------
// i2c_scanner
//
// Version 1
//    This program (or code that looks like it)
//    can be found in many places.
//    For example on the Arduino.cc forum.
//    The original author is not know.
// Version 2, Juni 2012, Using Arduino 1.0.1
//     Adapted to be as simple as possible by Arduino.cc user Krodal
// Version 3, Feb 26  2013
//    V3 by louarnold
// Version 4, March 3, 2013, Using Arduino 1.0.3
//    by Arduino.cc user Krodal.
//    Changes by louarnold removed.
//    Scanning addresses changed from 0...127 to 1...119,
//    according to the i2c scanner by Nick Gammon
//    https://www.gammon.com.au/forum/?id=10896
// Version 5, March 28, 2013
//    As version 4, but address scans now to 127.
//    A sensor seems to use address 120.
// Version 6, November 27, 2015.
//    Added waiting for the Leonardo serial communication.
// 
//
// This sketch tests the standard 7-bit addresses
// Devices with higher bit address might not be seen properly.
//

#include <Wire.h>

void setup() {
  Wire.begin();

  Serial.begin(9600);
  while (!Serial)
     delay(10);             // Leonardo: wait for serial monitor
  Serial.println("\nI2C Scanner");
}


void loop() {
  byte error, address;
  int nDevices;

  Serial.println("Scanning...");

  nDevices = 0;
  for(address = 1; address < 127; address++ ) 
  {
    // The i2c_scanner uses the return value of
    // the Write.endTransmisstion to see if
    // a device did acknowledge to the address.
    Wire.beginTransmission(address);
    error = Wire.endTransmission();

    if (error == 0)
    {
      Serial.print("I2C device found at address 0x");
      if (address<16) 
        Serial.print("0");
      Serial.print(address,HEX);
      Serial.println("  !");

      nDevices++;
    }
    else if (error==4) 
    {
      Serial.print("Unknown error at address 0x");
      if (address<16) 
        Serial.print("0");
      Serial.println(address,HEX);
    }    
  }
  if (nDevices == 0)
    Serial.println("No I2C devices found\n");
  else
    Serial.println("done\n");

  delay(5000);           // wait 5 seconds for next scan
}

Load and run that sketch as you would any other sketch onto your Arduino board.

Normal Behavior

If all goes well, you should get a list of addresses for each device found. In the example below, an Adafruit BMP280 breakout is attached to an Arduino UNO.

The BMP280's I2C address of 0x77 shows up as expected.

Missing Device or Pull Ups

If the device is disconnect and/or the pull up resistors are missing, the results will look like this:

Note that the sketch runs just fine, but reports no addresses.

A mis-wired board may hang the sketch after the "Scanning..." text is printed

This guide was first published on Sep 16, 2021. It was last updated on Sep 16, 2021.

This page (Arduino) was last updated on Oct 15, 2021.

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