You’ll need to have the Arduino IDE software configured for use with the Adafruit Trinket. If you’ve not done that before, it’s explained in this guide.

Copy the code below and paste it into a new Arduino sketch.

(Instructions continue below, after the code.)

Simple servo tail wagger for Adafruit 5V Trinket (not Pro) microcontroller.
Uses servo on pin 0.  The tail has no 'tendons' -- it's a passive thing,
simply hanging off the servo -- though a weak 'spine' (such as aquarium tube)
adds just enough body to help.  Pendulum math is then used to induce a
reasonable wag effect.

To break up the repetition and appear a little more 'alive,' the speed,
magnitude and duration of the tail wag is randomized (within certain ranges),
and it periodically settles down and stops (adds variety and also saves some
battery).  There's an optimal period (single-swing time) for a given tail
length, but it may randomly go a little faster or slower than this to add
some 'english' to the wag.

You'll need to calibrate this, editing a few lines below.  TAIL_LENGTH is the
length of the tail in meters (e.g. a 40 cm tail is 0.4 meters); for inches,
multiply by 2.54 to get centimeters, then divide by 100 for meters.
SERVO_MIN and SERVO_MAX are the pulse times (in microseconds) for the leftmost
and rightmost servo positions; though nominally these are 1000 and 2000 usec
(1.0 to 2.0 milliseconds), every servo in reality is a little different, and
you'll need to tune these values for your actual desired swing range.

#ifdef __AVR_ATtiny85__
 #include <avr/power.h>

// CONFIGURABLE STUFF --------------------------------------------------------

#define TAIL_LENGTH 0.4  // Nominal tail length (meters)
#define SERVO_PIN   0    // Servo is connected here
#define SERVO_MIN   500  // Servo pulse times
#define SERVO_MAX   1800 // in microseconds

// Tail cycles through four states: off, ramp up, steady wag, ramp down.
// Durations are semi-random; this table sets min & max times for each.
static const uint8_t PROGMEM modeTime[4][2] = {
  { 4,  9 }, // 4 to 9 second off time
  { 3,  6 }, // 3 to 6 second ramp up
  { 4, 12 }, // 4 to 12 sec steady wag
  { 2,  5 }  // 2 to 5 sec ramp down

// SHOULDN'T NEED TO EDIT BELOW THIS LINE ------------------------------------

#define MODE_OFF       0
#define MODE_RAMP_UP   1
#define MODE_HOLD      2
#define MODE_RAMP_DOWN 3

uint8_t  tailMode      = MODE_OFF;
float    wagnitude     = 0.8, // Magnitude of current wag cycle
         period        = M_PI * 2.0 * sqrt(TAIL_LENGTH / 9.8);
uint32_t modeStartTime = 0,
         modeDuration  = 0,
         lastPulseTime = 0;

// SETUP just configures prescaler & enables servo output --------------------

void setup() {
#if defined(__AVR_ATtiny85__) && (F_CPU == 16000000L)
  clock_prescale_set(clock_div_1); // 16 MHz Trinket (not Pro) requires this

// LOOP does all the tail-waggling math --------------------------------------

void loop() {
  uint32_t t = millis(); // Elapsed time, milliseconds

  // Compare time in current mode against planned duration
  if((t - modeStartTime) > modeDuration) { // Time's up!
    for(;;) {
      if(++tailMode > MODE_RAMP_DOWN)      // Cycle to next mode,
        tailMode = MODE_OFF;               // wrap if needed
      modeDuration = 1000 * random(        // Randomize mode duration
      if(tailMode != MODE_OFF) break;      // If 'off' mode...
      // Randomize magnitude of next wag cycle (70% to 100%)
      wagnitude = (float)random(7, 10) / 10.0;
      // Randomize tail length for next wag cycle (60% to 120%)
      float len = TAIL_LENGTH * (float)random(6, 12) / 10.0;
      // Solve for period (sec) from length (meters):
      period = M_PI * 2.0 * sqrt(len / 9.8);
      delay(modeDuration);                 //   Stop servo,
      t = millis();                        //   revise time and
    }                                      //   mode-cycle again
    modeStartTime = t;                     // Save mode start time

  // Calc amplitude of wag at current time (ramping up/down/steady)
  float a = wagnitude; // Assume MODE_HOLD
  if(tailMode != MODE_HOLD) {
    a = wagnitude * (float)(t - modeStartTime) / (float)modeDuration;
    if(tailMode == MODE_RAMP_DOWN) a = wagnitude - a;

  uint16_t servoPulseLength = SERVO_MIN + (int)((float)SERVO_RANGE *
    ((float)t / 1000.0)   // Current time in seconds
    / period * M_PI * 2.0 // Seconds to wag cycles
    ) * a)                // Sine wave * amplitude (-1.0 to 1.0)
    + 1.0) * 0.5);        // Convert to integer servo usec pulse

  // Handle servo pulse @ 50 Hz...
  while(((t = micros()) - lastPulseTime) < 20000); // Wait for it...
  digitalWrite(SERVO_PIN, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(SERVO_PIN, LOW);
  lastPulseTime = t;

Measure the length of your tail and convert to meters. Perfectly fine to use round “ish” numbers…it’s not rocket science. For example, a 12 inch tail is about 30-ish centimeters, or 0.3 meters.

Look for this line in the Arduino code, and replace the number there with your measurement:

#define TAIL_LENGTH 0.4  // Nominal tail length (meters)

In the Tools→Board menu, select “Adafruit Trinket 16 MHz.” Connect a USB cable and click the Upload button.

Normally the reset button is used to start the Trinket bootloader and upload code…but inside the enclosure, this can’t be reached. Plugging in the USB cable has the same effect…there’s about a 10 second window to start uploading code to the board.

After uploading…if using the 3xAAA battery pack, unplug the USB cable and switch the battery pack on. The servo will not run off USB in this configuration. This is normal.

If all goes well, the tail will be quiet for a moment, then gradually start to wag. After a few seconds it’ll settle down, then start up again, perhaps with a slightly different speed.

If the swinging is off-center, there’s a fix. Look for these two lines in the code:

#define SERVO_MIN   500  // Servo pulse times
#define SERVO_MAX   1800 // in microseconds

Servos expect a continuous series of pulses (about 50 times per second…50 Hz). The “on” time of each pulse indicates the servo position. Nominally this time is said to be between 1 and 2 milliseconds (1,000 and 2,000 microseconds) to represent the full range of motion…but every servo’s a little different, and the range of values could go higher or lower. So you may need to experiment with different values and upload the revised code to the board.

If the amount of rotation is acceptable, and it’s not running up against the left or right limits of the servo…just off-center…an easier option is just to unscrew the servo horn (the bit to which the tail is tied) and re-attach it at the desired angle.

How does it work?

The code is based on a formula devised by Galileo Galilei in the early 1600s…that the period (swing time) of a pendulum is much more dependent on its length than the amplitude of its swing…in fact, for small swing ranges the amplitude can be ignored.

L is the length of the pendulum (our tail), in meters. g is acceleration due to gravity — about 9.8 meters/second² on Earth. T is the resulting approximate period in seconds. Then we just use a sine wave matching that period.

The code cycles through four states: resting (no wagging), ramp up, steady wag, and ramp down. During all but the resting phase, the period of the swing remains the same (using the above formula)…only the amplitude changes. Gradually ramping up imparts just a little bit of extra energy on each cycle…a bit like kicking your legs on a swing. This is how we’re able to use such a small and inexpensive servo.

The four states are slightly randomized…it may rest or wag a little more or less on some cycles, and may go a bit faster or swing higher at times. A little unpredictability like this helps make it a little more believable or “alive” — our brains pick up very quickly on obvious repeating patterns!

This guide was first published on May 10, 2015. It was last updated on May 10, 2015.

This page (Code) was last updated on Apr 22, 2015.

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