All together now!

So now that we know how all the components work, here is an example of how this would all go together. This example uses all of these tools to make a UI with three window tabs with elements like buttons and images on them. You can start by using this as a base and customize it to be your own.

You can click Download: Project Zip in the code listing to get all the files or click the green button to see the files in the GitHub repository.

Copy the files to the PyPortal CIRCUITPY drive in the directories listed at the bottom of the page.

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2020 Richard Albritton for Adafruit Industries
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

import time
import board
import microcontroller
import displayio
import busio
from analogio import AnalogIn
import neopixel
import adafruit_adt7410
from adafruit_bitmap_font import bitmap_font
from adafruit_display_text.label import Label
from adafruit_button import Button
import adafruit_touchscreen
from adafruit_pyportal import PyPortal

# ------------- Constants ------------- #
# Sound Effects
soundDemo = "/sounds/sound.wav"
soundBeep = "/sounds/beep.wav"
soundTab = "/sounds/tab.wav"

# Hex Colors
WHITE = 0xFFFFFF
RED = 0xFF0000
YELLOW = 0xFFFF00
GREEN = 0x00FF00
BLUE = 0x0000FF
PURPLE = 0xFF00FF
BLACK = 0x000000

# Default Label styling
TABS_X = 0
TABS_Y = 15

# Default button styling:
BUTTON_HEIGHT = 40
BUTTON_WIDTH = 80

# Default State
view_live = 1
icon = 1
icon_name = "Ruby"
button_mode = 1
switch_state = 0

# ------------- Functions ------------- #
# Backlight function
# Value between 0 and 1 where 0 is OFF, 0.5 is 50% and 1 is 100% brightness.
def set_backlight(val):
    val = max(0, min(1.0, val))
    try:
        board.DISPLAY.auto_brightness = False
    except AttributeError:
        pass
    board.DISPLAY.brightness = val


# Helper for cycling through a number set of 1 to x.
def numberUP(num, max_val):
    num += 1
    if num <= max_val:
        return num
    else:
        return 1


# Set visibility of layer
def layerVisibility(state, layer, target):
    try:
        if state == "show":
            time.sleep(0.1)
            layer.append(target)
        elif state == "hide":
            layer.remove(target)
    except ValueError:
        pass


# This will handle switching Images and Icons
def set_image(group, filename):
    """Set the image file for a given goup for display.
    This is most useful for Icons or image slideshows.
        :param group: The chosen group
        :param filename: The filename of the chosen image
    """
    print("Set image to ", filename)
    if group:
        group.pop()

    if not filename:
        return  # we're done, no icon desired

    # CircuitPython 6 & 7 compatible
    image_file = open(filename, "rb")
    image = displayio.OnDiskBitmap(image_file)
    image_sprite = displayio.TileGrid(
        image, pixel_shader=getattr(image, "pixel_shader", displayio.ColorConverter())
    )

    # # CircuitPython 7+ compatible
    # image = displayio.OnDiskBitmap(filename)
    # image_sprite = displayio.TileGrid(image, pixel_shader=image.pixel_shader)

    group.append(image_sprite)


# return a reformatted string with word wrapping using PyPortal.wrap_nicely
def text_box(target, top, string, max_chars):
    text = pyportal.wrap_nicely(string, max_chars)
    new_text = ""
    test = ""

    for w in text:
        new_text += "\n" + w
        test += "M\n"

    text_height = Label(font, text="M", color=0x03AD31)
    text_height.text = test  # Odd things happen without this
    glyph_box = text_height.bounding_box
    target.text = ""  # Odd things happen without this
    target.y = int(glyph_box[3] / 2) + top
    target.text = new_text


def get_Temperature(source):
    if source:  # Only if we have the temperature sensor
        celsius = source.temperature
    else:  # No temperature sensor
        celsius = microcontroller.cpu.temperature
    return (celsius * 1.8) + 32


# ------------- Inputs and Outputs Setup ------------- #
light_sensor = AnalogIn(board.LIGHT)
try:
    # attempt to init. the temperature sensor
    i2c_bus = busio.I2C(board.SCL, board.SDA)
    adt = adafruit_adt7410.ADT7410(i2c_bus, address=0x48)
    adt.high_resolution = True
except ValueError:
    # Did not find ADT7410. Probably running on Titano or Pynt
    adt = None

# ------------- Screen Setup ------------- #
pyportal = PyPortal()
pyportal.set_background("/images/loading.bmp")  # Display an image until the loop starts
pixel = neopixel.NeoPixel(board.NEOPIXEL, 1, brightness=1)

# Touchscreen setup  [ Rotate 270 ]
display = board.DISPLAY
display.rotation = 270

if board.board_id == "pyportal_titano":
    screen_width = 320
    screen_height = 480
    set_backlight(
        1
    )  # 0.3 brightness does not cause the display to be visible on the Titano
else:
    screen_width = 240
    screen_height = 320
    set_backlight(0.3)

# We want three buttons across the top of the screen
TAB_BUTTON_Y = 0
TAB_BUTTON_HEIGHT = 40
TAB_BUTTON_WIDTH = int(screen_width / 3)

# We want two big buttons at the bottom of the screen
BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT = int(screen_height / 3.2)
BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH = int(screen_width / 2)
BIG_BUTTON_Y = int(screen_height - BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT)

# Initializes the display touch screen area
ts = adafruit_touchscreen.Touchscreen(
    board.TOUCH_YD,
    board.TOUCH_YU,
    board.TOUCH_XR,
    board.TOUCH_XL,
    calibration=((5200, 59000), (5800, 57000)),
    size=(screen_width, screen_height),
)

# ------------- Display Groups ------------- #
splash = displayio.Group()  # The Main Display Group
view1 = displayio.Group()  # Group for View 1 objects
view2 = displayio.Group()  # Group for View 2 objects
view3 = displayio.Group()  # Group for View 3 objects

# ------------- Setup for Images ------------- #
bg_group = displayio.Group()
splash.append(bg_group)
set_image(bg_group, "/images/BGimage.bmp")

icon_group = displayio.Group()
icon_group.x = 180
icon_group.y = 120
icon_group.scale = 1
view2.append(icon_group)

# ---------- Text Boxes ------------- #
# Set the font and preload letters
font = bitmap_font.load_font("/fonts/Helvetica-Bold-16.bdf")
font.load_glyphs(b"abcdefghjiklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890- ()")

# Text Label Objects
feed1_label = Label(font, text="Text Window 1", color=0xE39300)
feed1_label.x = TABS_X
feed1_label.y = TABS_Y
view1.append(feed1_label)

feed2_label = Label(font, text="Text Window 2", color=0xFFFFFF)
feed2_label.x = TABS_X
feed2_label.y = TABS_Y
view2.append(feed2_label)

sensors_label = Label(font, text="Data View", color=0x03AD31)
sensors_label.x = TABS_X
sensors_label.y = TABS_Y
view3.append(sensors_label)

sensor_data = Label(font, text="Data View", color=0x03AD31)
sensor_data.x = TABS_X + 16  # Indents the text layout
sensor_data.y = 150
view3.append(sensor_data)

# ---------- Display Buttons ------------- #
# This group will make it easy for us to read a button press later.
buttons = []

# Main User Interface Buttons
button_view1 = Button(
    x=0,  # Start at furthest left
    y=0,  # Start at top
    width=TAB_BUTTON_WIDTH,  # Calculated width
    height=TAB_BUTTON_HEIGHT,  # Static height
    label="View 1",
    label_font=font,
    label_color=0xFF7E00,
    fill_color=0x5C5B5C,
    outline_color=0x767676,
    selected_fill=0x1A1A1A,
    selected_outline=0x2E2E2E,
    selected_label=0x525252,
)
buttons.append(button_view1)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_view2 = Button(
    x=TAB_BUTTON_WIDTH,  # Start after width of a button
    y=0,
    width=TAB_BUTTON_WIDTH,
    height=TAB_BUTTON_HEIGHT,
    label="View 2",
    label_font=font,
    label_color=0xFF7E00,
    fill_color=0x5C5B5C,
    outline_color=0x767676,
    selected_fill=0x1A1A1A,
    selected_outline=0x2E2E2E,
    selected_label=0x525252,
)
buttons.append(button_view2)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_view3 = Button(
    x=TAB_BUTTON_WIDTH * 2,  # Start after width of 2 buttons
    y=0,
    width=TAB_BUTTON_WIDTH,
    height=TAB_BUTTON_HEIGHT,
    label="View 3",
    label_font=font,
    label_color=0xFF7E00,
    fill_color=0x5C5B5C,
    outline_color=0x767676,
    selected_fill=0x1A1A1A,
    selected_outline=0x2E2E2E,
    selected_label=0x525252,
)
buttons.append(button_view3)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_switch = Button(
    x=0,  # Start at furthest left
    y=BIG_BUTTON_Y,
    width=BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH,
    height=BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT,
    label="Light Switch",
    label_font=font,
    label_color=0xFF7E00,
    fill_color=0x5C5B5C,
    outline_color=0x767676,
    selected_fill=0x1A1A1A,
    selected_outline=0x2E2E2E,
    selected_label=0x525252,
)
buttons.append(button_switch)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_2 = Button(
    x=BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH,  # Starts just after button 1 width
    y=BIG_BUTTON_Y,
    width=BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH,
    height=BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT,
    label="Light Color",
    label_font=font,
    label_color=0xFF7E00,
    fill_color=0x5C5B5C,
    outline_color=0x767676,
    selected_fill=0x1A1A1A,
    selected_outline=0x2E2E2E,
    selected_label=0x525252,
)
buttons.append(button_2)  # adding this button to the buttons group

# Add all of the main buttons to the splash Group
for b in buttons:
    splash.append(b)

# Make a button to change the icon image on view2
button_icon = Button(
    x=150,
    y=60,
    width=BUTTON_WIDTH,
    height=BUTTON_HEIGHT,
    label="Icon",
    label_font=font,
    label_color=0xFFFFFF,
    fill_color=0x8900FF,
    outline_color=0xBC55FD,
    selected_fill=0x5A5A5A,
    selected_outline=0xFF6600,
    selected_label=0x525252,
    style=Button.ROUNDRECT,
)
buttons.append(button_icon)  # adding this button to the buttons group

# Add this button to view2 Group
view2.append(button_icon)

# Make a button to play a sound on view2
button_sound = Button(
    x=150,
    y=170,
    width=BUTTON_WIDTH,
    height=BUTTON_HEIGHT,
    label="Sound",
    label_font=font,
    label_color=0xFFFFFF,
    fill_color=0x8900FF,
    outline_color=0xBC55FD,
    selected_fill=0x5A5A5A,
    selected_outline=0xFF6600,
    selected_label=0x525252,
    style=Button.ROUNDRECT,
)
buttons.append(button_sound)  # adding this button to the buttons group

# Add this button to view2 Group
view3.append(button_sound)

# pylint: disable=global-statement
def switch_view(what_view):
    global view_live
    if what_view == 1:
        button_view1.selected = False
        button_view2.selected = True
        button_view3.selected = True
        layerVisibility("hide", splash, view2)
        layerVisibility("hide", splash, view3)
        layerVisibility("show", splash, view1)
    elif what_view == 2:
        # global icon
        button_view1.selected = True
        button_view2.selected = False
        button_view3.selected = True
        layerVisibility("hide", splash, view1)
        layerVisibility("hide", splash, view3)
        layerVisibility("show", splash, view2)
    else:
        button_view1.selected = True
        button_view2.selected = True
        button_view3.selected = False
        layerVisibility("hide", splash, view1)
        layerVisibility("hide", splash, view2)
        layerVisibility("show", splash, view3)

    # Set global button state
    view_live = what_view
    print("View {view_num:.0f} On".format(view_num=what_view))


# pylint: enable=global-statement

# Set veriables and startup states
button_view1.selected = False
button_view2.selected = True
button_view3.selected = True
button_switch.label = "OFF"
button_switch.selected = True

layerVisibility("show", splash, view1)
layerVisibility("hide", splash, view2)
layerVisibility("hide", splash, view3)

# Update out Labels with display text.
text_box(
    feed1_label,
    TABS_Y,
    "The text on this screen is wrapped so that all of it fits nicely into a "
    "text box that is {} x {}.".format(
        feed1_label.bounding_box[2], feed1_label.bounding_box[3] * 2
    ),
    30,
)

text_box(feed2_label, TABS_Y, "Tap on the Icon button to meet a new friend.", 18)

text_box(
    sensors_label,
    TABS_Y,
    "This screen can display sensor readings and tap Sound to play a WAV file.",
    28,
)

board.DISPLAY.root_group = splash


# ------------- Code Loop ------------- #
while True:
    touch = ts.touch_point
    light = light_sensor.value
    sensor_data.text = "Touch: {}\nLight: {}\nTemp: {:.0f}°F".format(
        touch, light, get_Temperature(adt)
    )

    # Will also cause screen to dim when hand is blocking sensor to touch screen
    #    # Adjust backlight
    #    if light < 1500:
    #        set_backlight(0.1)
    #    elif light < 3000:
    #        set_backlight(0.5)
    #    else:
    #        set_backlight(1)

    # ------------- Handle Button Press Detection  ------------- #
    if touch:  # Only do this if the screen is touched
        # loop with buttons using enumerate() to number each button group as i
        for i, b in enumerate(buttons):
            if b.contains(touch):  # Test each button to see if it was pressed
                print("button{} pressed".format(i))
                if i == 0 and view_live != 1:  # only if view1 is visible
                    pyportal.play_file(soundTab)
                    switch_view(1)
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                if i == 1 and view_live != 2:  # only if view2 is visible
                    pyportal.play_file(soundTab)
                    switch_view(2)
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                if i == 2 and view_live != 3:  # only if view3 is visible
                    pyportal.play_file(soundTab)
                    switch_view(3)
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                if i == 3:
                    pyportal.play_file(soundBeep)
                    # Toggle switch button type
                    if switch_state == 0:
                        switch_state = 1
                        b.label = "ON"
                        b.selected = False
                        pixel.fill(WHITE)
                        print("Switch ON")
                    else:
                        switch_state = 0
                        b.label = "OFF"
                        b.selected = True
                        pixel.fill(BLACK)
                        print("Switch OFF")
                    # for debounce
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Switch Pressed")
                if i == 4:
                    pyportal.play_file(soundBeep)
                    # Momentary button type
                    b.selected = True
                    print("Button Pressed")
                    button_mode = numberUP(button_mode, 5)
                    if button_mode == 1:
                        pixel.fill(RED)
                    elif button_mode == 2:
                        pixel.fill(YELLOW)
                    elif button_mode == 3:
                        pixel.fill(GREEN)
                    elif button_mode == 4:
                        pixel.fill(BLUE)
                    elif button_mode == 5:
                        pixel.fill(PURPLE)
                    switch_state = 1
                    button_switch.label = "ON"
                    button_switch.selected = False
                    # for debounce
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Button released")
                    b.selected = False
                if i == 5 and view_live == 2:  # only if view2 is visible
                    pyportal.play_file(soundBeep)
                    b.selected = True
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Icon Button Pressed")
                    icon = numberUP(icon, 3)
                    if icon == 1:
                        icon_name = "Ruby"
                    elif icon == 2:
                        icon_name = "Gus"
                    elif icon == 3:
                        icon_name = "Billie"
                    b.selected = False
                    text_box(
                        feed2_label,
                        TABS_Y,
                        "Every time you tap the Icon button the icon image will "
                        "change. Say hi to {}!".format(icon_name),
                        18,
                    )
                    set_image(icon_group, "/images/" + icon_name + ".bmp")
                if i == 6 and view_live == 3:  # only if view3 is visible
                    b.selected = True
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Sound Button Pressed")
                    pyportal.play_file(soundDemo)
                    b.selected = False

When you are finished the CIRCUITPY drive should look something like this:

CIRCUITPY

This guide was first published on Feb 10, 2020. It was last updated on Apr 17, 2024.

This page (The Full Code) was last updated on Apr 16, 2024.

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