The Full Code

All together now!

So now that we know how all the components work, here is an example of how this would all go together. This example uses all of these tools to make a UI with three window tabs with elements like buttons and images on them. You can start by using this as a base and customize it to be your own.

You can click Download: Project Zip in the code listing to get all the files or click the green button to see the files in the GitHub repository.

Copy the files to the PyPortal CIRCUITPY drive in the directories listed at the bottom of the page.

import time
import board
import displayio
import busio
from analogio import AnalogIn
import neopixel
import adafruit_adt7410
from adafruit_bitmap_font import bitmap_font
from adafruit_display_text.label import Label
from adafruit_button import Button
import adafruit_touchscreen
from adafruit_pyportal import PyPortal

# ------------- Inputs and Outputs Setup ------------- #
# init. the temperature sensor
i2c_bus = busio.I2C(board.SCL, board.SDA)
adt = adafruit_adt7410.ADT7410(i2c_bus, address=0x48)
adt.high_resolution = True

# init. the light sensor
light_sensor = AnalogIn(board.LIGHT)

pixel = neopixel.NeoPixel(board.NEOPIXEL, 1, brightness=1)
WHITE = 0xffffff
RED = 0xff0000
YELLOW = 0xffff00
GREEN = 0x00ff00
BLUE = 0x0000ff
PURPLE = 0xff00ff
BLACK = 0x000000

# ---------- Sound Effects ------------- #
soundDemo = '/sounds/sound.wav'
soundBeep = '/sounds/beep.wav'
soundTab = '/sounds/tab.wav'

# ------------- Other Helper Functions------------- #
# Helper for cycling through a number set of 1 to x.
def numberUP(num, max_val):
    num += 1
    if num <= max_val:
        return num
    else:
        return 1

# ------------- Screen Setup ------------- #
pyportal = PyPortal()
display = board.DISPLAY
display.rotation = 270

# Backlight function
# Value between 0 and 1 where 0 is OFF, 0.5 is 50% and 1 is 100% brightness.
def set_backlight(val):
    val = max(0, min(1.0, val))
    board.DISPLAY.auto_brightness = False
    board.DISPLAY.brightness = val

# Set the Backlight
set_backlight(0.3)

# Touchscreen setup
# ------Rotate 270:
screen_width = 240
screen_height = 320
ts = adafruit_touchscreen.Touchscreen(board.TOUCH_YD, board.TOUCH_YU,
                                      board.TOUCH_XR, board.TOUCH_XL,
                                      calibration=((5200, 59000),
                                                   (5800, 57000)),
                                      size=(screen_width, screen_height))


# ------------- Display Groups ------------- #
splash = displayio.Group(max_size=15)  # The Main Display Group
view1 = displayio.Group(max_size=15)  # Group for View 1 objects
view2 = displayio.Group(max_size=15)  # Group for View 2 objects
view3 = displayio.Group(max_size=15)  # Group for View 3 objects

def hideLayer(hide_target):
    try:
        splash.remove(hide_target)
    except ValueError:
        pass

def showLayer(show_target):
    try:
        time.sleep(0.1)
        splash.append(show_target)
    except ValueError:
        pass

# ------------- Setup for Images ------------- #

# Display an image until the loop starts
pyportal.set_background('/images/loading.bmp')


bg_group = displayio.Group(max_size=1)
splash.append(bg_group)


icon_group = displayio.Group(max_size=1)
icon_group.x = 180
icon_group.y = 120
icon_group.scale = 1
view2.append(icon_group)

# This will handel switching Images and Icons
def set_image(group, filename):
    """Set the image file for a given goup for display.
    This is most useful for Icons or image slideshows.
        :param group: The chosen group
        :param filename: The filename of the chosen image
    """
    print("Set image to ", filename)
    if group:
        group.pop()

    if not filename:
        return  # we're done, no icon desired

    image_file = open(filename, "rb")
    image = displayio.OnDiskBitmap(image_file)
    try:
        image_sprite = displayio.TileGrid(image, pixel_shader=displayio.ColorConverter())
    except TypeError:
        image_sprite = displayio.TileGrid(image, pixel_shader=displayio.ColorConverter(),
                                          position=(0, 0))
    group.append(image_sprite)

set_image(bg_group, "/images/BGimage.bmp")

# ---------- Text Boxes ------------- #
# Set the font and preload letters
font = bitmap_font.load_font("/fonts/Helvetica-Bold-16.bdf")
font.load_glyphs(b'abcdefghjiklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890- ()')

# Default Label styling:
TABS_X = 5
TABS_Y = 50

# Text Label Objects
feed1_label = Label(font, text="Text Wondow 1", color=0xE39300, max_glyphs=200)
feed1_label.x = TABS_X
feed1_label.y = TABS_Y
view1.append(feed1_label)

feed2_label = Label(font, text="Text Wondow 2", color=0xFFFFFF, max_glyphs=200)
feed2_label.x = TABS_X
feed2_label.y = TABS_Y
view2.append(feed2_label)

sensors_label = Label(font, text="Data View", color=0x03AD31, max_glyphs=200)
sensors_label.x = TABS_X
sensors_label.y = TABS_Y
view3.append(sensors_label)

sensor_data = Label(font, text="Data View", color=0x03AD31, max_glyphs=100)
sensor_data.x = TABS_X+15
sensor_data.y = 170
view3.append(sensor_data)


text_hight = Label(font, text="M", color=0x03AD31, max_glyphs=10)
# return a reformatted string with word wrapping using PyPortal.wrap_nicely
def text_box(target, top, string, max_chars):
    text = pyportal.wrap_nicely(string, max_chars)
    new_text = ""
    test = ""
    for w in text:
        new_text += '\n'+w
        test += 'M\n'
    text_hight.text = test  # Odd things happen without this
    glyph_box = text_hight.bounding_box
    target.text = ""  # Odd things happen without this
    target.y = int(glyph_box[3]/2)+top
    target.text = new_text

# ---------- Display Buttons ------------- #
# Default button styling:
BUTTON_HEIGHT = 40
BUTTON_WIDTH = 80

# We want three buttons across the top of the screen
TAPS_HEIGHT = 40
TAPS_WIDTH = int(screen_width/3)
TAPS_Y = 0

# We want two big buttons at the bottom of the screen
BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT = int(screen_height/3.2)
BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH = int(screen_width/2)
BIG_BUTTON_Y = int(screen_height-BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT)

# This group will make it easy for us to read a button press later.
buttons = []

# Main User Interface Buttons
button_view1 = Button(x=0, y=0,
                      width=TAPS_WIDTH, height=TAPS_HEIGHT,
                      label="View1", label_font=font, label_color=0xff7e00,
                      fill_color=0x5c5b5c, outline_color=0x767676,
                      selected_fill=0x1a1a1a, selected_outline=0x2e2e2e,
                      selected_label=0x525252)
buttons.append(button_view1)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_view2 = Button(x=TAPS_WIDTH, y=0,
                      width=TAPS_WIDTH, height=TAPS_HEIGHT,
                      label="View2", label_font=font, label_color=0xff7e00,
                      fill_color=0x5c5b5c, outline_color=0x767676,
                      selected_fill=0x1a1a1a, selected_outline=0x2e2e2e,
                      selected_label=0x525252)
buttons.append(button_view2)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_view3 = Button(x=TAPS_WIDTH*2, y=0,
                      width=TAPS_WIDTH, height=TAPS_HEIGHT,
                      label="View3", label_font=font, label_color=0xff7e00,
                      fill_color=0x5c5b5c, outline_color=0x767676,
                      selected_fill=0x1a1a1a, selected_outline=0x2e2e2e,
                      selected_label=0x525252)
buttons.append(button_view3)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_switch = Button(x=0, y=BIG_BUTTON_Y,
                       width=BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH, height=BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                       label="Switch", label_font=font, label_color=0xff7e00,
                       fill_color=0x5c5b5c, outline_color=0x767676,
                       selected_fill=0x1a1a1a, selected_outline=0x2e2e2e,
                       selected_label=0x525252)
buttons.append(button_switch)  # adding this button to the buttons group

button_2 = Button(x=BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH, y=BIG_BUTTON_Y,
                  width=BIG_BUTTON_WIDTH, height=BIG_BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                  label="Button", label_font=font, label_color=0xff7e00,
                  fill_color=0x5c5b5c, outline_color=0x767676,
                  selected_fill=0x1a1a1a, selected_outline=0x2e2e2e,
                  selected_label=0x525252)
buttons.append(button_2)  # adding this button to the buttons group

# Add all of the main buttons to the spalsh Group
for b in buttons:
    splash.append(b.group)


# Make a button to change the icon image on view2
button_icon = Button(x=150, y=60,
                     width=BUTTON_WIDTH, height=BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                     label="Icon", label_font=font, label_color=0xffffff,
                     fill_color=0x8900ff, outline_color=0xbc55fd,
                     selected_fill=0x5a5a5a, selected_outline=0xff6600,
                     selected_label=0x525252, style=Button.ROUNDRECT)
buttons.append(button_icon)  # adding this button to the buttons group

# Add this button to view2 Group
view2.append(button_icon.group)

# Make a button to play a sound on view2
button_sound = Button(x=150, y=170,
                      width=BUTTON_WIDTH, height=BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                      label="Sound", label_font=font, label_color=0xffffff,
                      fill_color=0x8900ff, outline_color=0xbc55fd,
                      selected_fill=0x5a5a5a, selected_outline=0xff6600,
                      selected_label=0x525252, style=Button.ROUNDRECT)
buttons.append(button_sound)  # adding this button to the buttons group

# Add this button to view2 Group
view3.append(button_sound.group)

#pylint: disable=global-statement
def switch_view(what_view):
    global view_live
    if what_view == 1:
        hideLayer(view2)
        hideLayer(view3)
        button_view1.selected = False
        button_view2.selected = True
        button_view3.selected = True
        showLayer(view1)
        view_live = 1
        print("View1 On")
    elif what_view == 2:
        # global icon
        hideLayer(view1)
        hideLayer(view3)
        button_view1.selected = True
        button_view2.selected = False
        button_view3.selected = True
        showLayer(view2)
        view_live = 2
        print("View2 On")
    else:
        hideLayer(view1)
        hideLayer(view2)
        button_view1.selected = True
        button_view2.selected = True
        button_view3.selected = False
        showLayer(view3)
        view_live = 3
        print("View3 On")
#pylint: enable=global-statement

# Set veriables and startup states
button_view1.selected = False
button_view2.selected = True
button_view3.selected = True
showLayer(view1)
hideLayer(view2)
hideLayer(view3)

view_live = 1
icon = 1
icon_name = "Ruby"
button_mode = 1
switch_state = 0
button_switch.label = "OFF"
button_switch.selected = True

# Update out Labels with display text.
text_box(feed1_label, TABS_Y,
         "The text on this screen is wrapped so that all of it fits nicely into a \
text box that is ### x ###.", 30)
text_box(feed1_label, TABS_Y,
         'The text on this screen is wrapped so that all of it fits nicely into a \
text box that is {} x {}.'
         .format(feed1_label.bounding_box[2], feed1_label.bounding_box[3]*2), 30)

text_box(feed2_label, TABS_Y, 'Tap on the Icon button to meet a new friend.', 18)

text_box(sensors_label, TABS_Y,
         "This screen can display sensor readings and tap Sound to play a WAV file.", 28)

board.DISPLAY.show(splash)

# ------------- Code Loop ------------- #
while True:
    touch = ts.touch_point
    light = light_sensor.value
    tempC = round(adt.temperature)
    tempF = tempC * 1.8 + 32

    sensor_data.text = 'Touch: {}\nLight: {}\n Temp: {}°F'.format(touch, light, tempF)

    # ------------- Handle Button Press Detection  ------------- #
    if touch:  # Only do this if the screen is touched
        # loop with buttons using enumerate() to number each button group as i
        for i, b in enumerate(buttons):
            if b.contains(touch):  # Test each button to see if it was pressed
                print('button%d pressed' % i)
                if i == 0 and view_live != 1:  # only if view1 is visable
                    pyportal.play_file(soundTab)
                    switch_view(1)
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                if i == 1 and view_live != 2:  # only if view2 is visable
                    pyportal.play_file(soundTab)
                    switch_view(2)
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                if i == 2 and view_live != 3:  # only if view3 is visable
                    pyportal.play_file(soundTab)
                    switch_view(3)
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                if i == 3:
                    pyportal.play_file(soundBeep)
                    # Toggle switch button type
                    if switch_state == 0:
                        switch_state = 1
                        b.label = "ON"
                        b.selected = False
                        pixel.fill(WHITE)
                        print("Swich ON")
                    else:
                        switch_state = 0
                        b.label = "OFF"
                        b.selected = True
                        pixel.fill(BLACK)
                        print("Swich OFF")
                    # for debounce
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Swich Pressed")
                if i == 4:
                    pyportal.play_file(soundBeep)
                    # Momentary button type
                    b.selected = True
                    print('Button Pressed')
                    button_mode = numberUP(button_mode, 5)
                    if button_mode == 1:
                        pixel.fill(RED)
                    elif button_mode == 2:
                        pixel.fill(YELLOW)
                    elif button_mode == 3:
                        pixel.fill(GREEN)
                    elif button_mode == 4:
                        pixel.fill(BLUE)
                    elif button_mode == 5:
                        pixel.fill(PURPLE)
                    switch_state = 1
                    button_switch.label = "ON"
                    button_switch.selected = False
                    # for debounce
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Button released")
                    b.selected = False
                if i == 5 and view_live == 2:  # only if view2 is visable
                    pyportal.play_file(soundBeep)
                    b.selected = True
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Icon Button Pressed")
                    icon = numberUP(icon, 3)
                    if icon == 1:
                        icon_name = "Ruby"
                    elif icon == 2:
                        icon_name = "Gus"
                    elif icon == 3:
                        icon_name = "Billie"
                    b.selected = False
                    text_box(feed2_label, TABS_Y,
                             "Every time you tap the Icon button the icon image will \
change. Say hi to {}!".format(icon_name), 18)
                    set_image(icon_group, "/images/"+icon_name+".bmp")
                if i == 6 and view_live == 3:  # only if view3 is visable
                    b.selected = True
                    while ts.touch_point:
                        pass
                    print("Sound Button Pressed")
                    pyportal.play_file(soundDemo)
                    b.selected = False

When you are finished the CIRCUITPY drive should look something like this:

This guide was first published on Feb 10, 2020. It was last updated on Feb 10, 2020. This page (The Full Code) was last updated on Feb 20, 2020.