This project will show you how to fetch information from the internet and show it on your MagTag with progress bars for percentage data.

We'll look at the very basics of the displayio ProgressBar and then see how it can be used to easily show dynamic data.

Parts

Adafruit MagTag - 2.9" Grayscale E-Ink WiFi Display
The Adafruit MagTag combines the new ESP32-S2 wireless module and a 2.9" grayscale E-Ink display to make a low-power IoT display that can show data on its screen even when power...
$34.95
In Stock
Adafruit MagTag Starter Kit - 2.9" Grayscale E-Ink WiFi Display
The Adafruit MagTag combines the new ESP32-S2 wireless module and a 2.9" grayscale E-Ink display to make a low-power IoT display that can show data on its screen...
Out of Stock
Mini Magnet Feet for RGB LED Matrices (Pack of 4)
Got a glorious RGB Matrix project you want to mount and display in your workspace or home? If you have one of the matrix panels listed below, you'll need a pack of these...
Out of Stock
USB Type A to Type C Cable - 1ft - 0.3 meter
As technology changes and adapts, so does Adafruit. This  USB Type A to Type C cable will help you with the transition to USB C, even if you're still...
$3.95
In Stock
Lithium Ion Polymer Battery - 3.7v 1200mAh
Lithium ion polymer (also known as 'lipo' or 'lipoly') batteries are thin, light and powerful. The output ranges from 4.2V when completely charged to 3.7V. This battery...
Out of Stock

CircuitPython is a derivative of MicroPython designed to simplify experimentation and education on low-cost microcontrollers. It makes it easier than ever to get prototyping by requiring no upfront desktop software downloads. Simply copy and edit files on the CIRCUITPY drive to iterate.

Set Up CircuitPython

Follow the steps to get CircuitPython installed on your MagTag.

Click the link above and download the latest .BIN and .UF2 file

(depending on how you program the ESP32S2 board you may need one or the other, might as well get both)

Download and save it to your desktop (or wherever is handy).

Plug your MagTag into your computer using a known-good USB cable.

A lot of people end up using charge-only USB cables and it is very frustrating! So make sure you have a USB cable you know is good for data sync.

Option 1 - Load with UF2 Bootloader

This is by far the easiest way to load CircuitPython. However it requires your board has the UF2 bootloader installed. Some early boards do not (we hadn't written UF2 yet!) - in which case you can load using the built in ROM bootloader.

Still, try this first!

Try Launching UF2 Bootloader

Loading CircuitPython by drag-n-drop UF2 bootloader is the easier way and we recommend it. If you have a MagTag where the front of the board is black, your MagTag came with UF2 already on it.

Launch UF2 by double-clicking the Reset button (the one next to the USB C port). You may have to try a few times to get the timing right.

If the UF2 bootloader is installed, you will see a new disk drive appear called MAGTAGBOOT

Copy the UF2 file you downloaded at the first step of this tutorial onto the MAGTAGBOOT drive

If you're using Windows and you get an error at the end of the file copy that says Error from the file copy, Error 0x800701B1: A device which does not exist was specified. You can ignore this error, the bootloader sometimes disconnects without telling Windows, the install completed just fine and you can continue. If its really annoying, you can also upgrade the bootloader (the latest version of the UF2 bootloader fixes this warning)

Your board should auto-reset into CircuitPython, or you may need to press reset. A CIRCUITPY drive will appear. You're done! Go to the next pages.

Option 2 - Use esptool to load BIN file

If you have an original MagTag with while soldermask on the front, we didn't have UF2 written for the ESP32S2 yet so it will not come with the UF2 bootloader.

You can upload with esptool to the ROM (hardware) bootloader instead!

Follow the initial steps found in the Run esptool and check connection section of the ROM Bootloader page to verify your environment is set up, your board is successfully connected, and which port it's using.

In the final command to write a binary file to the board, replace the port with your port, and replace "firmware.bin" with the the file you downloaded above.

The output should look something like the output in the image.

Press reset to exit the bootloader.

Your CIRCUITPY drive should appear!

You're all set! Go to the next pages.

Option 3 - Use Chrome Browser To Upload BIN file

If for some reason you cannot get esptool to run, you can always try using the Chrome-browser version of esptool we have written. This is handy if you don't have Python on your computer, or something is really weird with your setup that makes esptool not run (which happens sometimes and isn't worth debugging!) You can follow along on the Web Serial ESPTool page and either load the UF2 bootloader and then come back to Option 1 on this page, or you can download the CircuitPython BIN file directly using the tool in the same manner as the bootloader.

To use the internet-connectivity built into your ESP32-S2 with CircuitPython, you must first install a number of libraries. This page covers that process.

Adafruit CircuitPython Library Bundle

Download the Adafruit CircuitPython Bundle. You can find the latest release here:

Download the adafruit-circuitpython-bundle-version-mpy-*.zip bundle zip file, and unzip a folder of the same name. Inside you'll find a lib folder. The entire collection of libraries is too large to fit on the CIRCUITPY drive. Instead, add each library as you need it, this will reduce the space usage but you'll need to put in a little more effort.

At a minimum we recommend the following libraries, in fact we more than recommend. They're basically required. So grab them and install them into CIRCUITPY/lib now!

  • adafruit_requests.mpy - A requests-like library for HTTP commands.
  • neopixel.mpy - Helper library to use NeoPixel LEDs, often built into the boards so they're great for quick feedback

Once you have added those files, please continue to the next page to set up and test Internet connectivity

Once you have CircuitPython installed and the minimum libraries installed we can get your board connected to the Internet. 

To get connected, you will need to start by creating a secrets.py file.

Secrets File

We expect people to share tons of projects as they build CircuitPython WiFi widgets. What we want to avoid is people accidentally sharing their passwords or secret tokens and API keys. So, we designed all our examples to use a secrets.py file, that is in your CIRCUITPY drive, to hold secret/private/custom data. That way you can share your main project without worrying about accidentally sharing private stuff.

Your secrets.py file should look like this:

# This file is where you keep secret settings, passwords, and tokens!
# If you put them in the code you risk committing that info or sharing it

secrets = {
    'ssid' : 'home_wifi_network',
    'password' : 'wifi_password',
    'aio_username' : 'my_adafruit_io_username',
    'aio_key' : 'my_adafruit_io_key',
    'timezone' : "America/New_York", # http://worldtimeapi.org/timezones
    }

Copy and paste that text/code into a file called secrets.py and save it to your CIRCUITPY folder like so:

Inside is a python dictionary named secrets with a line for each entry. Each entry has an entry name (say 'ssid') and then a colon to separate it from the entry key 'home ssid' and finally a comma ,

At a minimum you'll need to adjust the ssid and password for your local WiFi setup so do that now!

As you make projects you may need more tokens and keys, just add them one line at a time. See for example other tokens such as one for accessing github or the hackaday API. Other non-secret data like your timezone can also go here, just cause its called secrets doesn't mean you can't have general customization data in there!

For the correct time zone string, look at http://worldtimeapi.org/timezones and remember that if your city is not listed, look for a city in the same time zone, for example Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC, and Miami are all on the same time as New York.

Of course, don't share your secrets.py - keep that out of GitHub, Discord or other project-sharing sites.

Don't share your secrets.py file, it has your passwords and API keys in it!

Connect to WiFi

OK now you have your secrets setup - you can connect to the Internet using the Requests module.

First make sure you are running the latest version of Adafruit CircuitPython for your board.

Next you'll need to install the necessary libraries to use the hardware--carefully follow the steps to find and install these libraries from Adafruit's CircuitPython library bundle. Our introduction guide has a great page on how to install the library bundle.

  • adafruit_requests
  • neopixel

Before continuing make sure your board's CIRCUITPY/lib folder or root filesystem has the above files copied over.

Once that's done, load up the following example using Mu or your favorite editor:

import ipaddress
import ssl
import wifi
import socketpool
import adafruit_requests

# URLs to fetch from
TEXT_URL = "http://wifitest.adafruit.com/testwifi/index.html"
JSON_QUOTES_URL = "https://www.adafruit.com/api/quotes.php"
JSON_STARS_URL = "https://api.github.com/repos/adafruit/circuitpython"

# Get wifi details and more from a secrets.py file
try:
    from secrets import secrets
except ImportError:
    print("WiFi secrets are kept in secrets.py, please add them there!")
    raise

print("ESP32-S2 WebClient Test")

print("My MAC addr:", [hex(i) for i in wifi.radio.mac_address])

print("Available WiFi networks:")
for network in wifi.radio.start_scanning_networks():
    print("\t%s\t\tRSSI: %d\tChannel: %d" % (str(network.ssid, "utf-8"),
            network.rssi, network.channel))
wifi.radio.stop_scanning_networks()

print("Connecting to %s"%secrets["ssid"])
wifi.radio.connect(secrets["ssid"], secrets["password"])
print("Connected to %s!"%secrets["ssid"])
print("My IP address is", wifi.radio.ipv4_address)

ipv4 = ipaddress.ip_address("8.8.4.4")
print("Ping google.com: %f ms" % (wifi.radio.ping(ipv4)*1000))

pool = socketpool.SocketPool(wifi.radio)
requests = adafruit_requests.Session(pool, ssl.create_default_context())

print("Fetching text from", TEXT_URL)
response = requests.get(TEXT_URL)
print("-" * 40)
print(response.text)
print("-" * 40)

print("Fetching json from", JSON_QUOTES_URL)
response = requests.get(JSON_QUOTES_URL)
print("-" * 40)
print(response.json())
print("-" * 40)

print()

print("Fetching and parsing json from", JSON_STARS_URL)
response = requests.get(JSON_STARS_URL)
print("-" * 40)
print("CircuitPython GitHub Stars", response.json()["stargazers_count"])
print("-" * 40)

print("done")

And save it to your board. Make sure the file is named code.py.

Open up your REPL, you should see something like the following:

In order, the example code...

Checks the ESP32-S2's MAC address.

print("My MAC addr:", [hex(i) for i in wifi.radio.mac_address])

Performs a scan of all access points and prints out the access point's name (SSID), signal strength (RSSI), and channel.

print("Avaliable WiFi networks:")
for network in wifi.radio.start_scanning_networks():
    print("\t%s\t\tRSSI: %d\tChannel: %d" % (str(network.ssid, "utf-8"),
            network.rssi, network.channel))
wifi.radio.stop_scanning_networks()

Connects to the access point you defined in the secrets.py file, prints out its local IP address, and attempts to ping google.com to check its network connectivity. 

print("Connecting to %s"%secrets["ssid"])
wifi.radio.connect(secrets["ssid"], secrets["password"])
print(print("Connected to %s!"%secrets["ssid"]))
print("My IP address is", wifi.radio.ipv4_address)

ipv4 = ipaddress.ip_address("8.8.4.4")
print("Ping google.com: %f ms" % wifi.radio.ping(ipv4))

The code creates a socketpool using the wifi radio's available sockets. This is performed so we don't need to re-use sockets. Then, it initializes a a new instance of the requests interface - which makes getting data from the internet really really easy.

pool = socketpool.SocketPool(wifi.radio)
requests = adafruit_requests.Session(pool, ssl.create_default_context())

To read in plain-text from a web URL, call requests.get - you may pass in either a http, or a https url for SSL connectivity. 

print("Fetching text from", TEXT_URL)
response = requests.get(TEXT_URL)
print("-" * 40)
print(response.text)
print("-" * 40)

Requests can also display a JSON-formatted response from a web URL using a call to requests.get

print("Fetching json from", JSON_QUOTES_URL)
response = requests.get(JSON_QUOTES_URL)
print("-" * 40)
print(response.json())
print("-" * 40)

Finally, you can fetch and parse a JSON URL using requests.get. This code snippet obtains the stargazers_count field from a call to the GitHub API.

print("Fetching and parsing json from", JSON_STARS_URL)
response = requests.get(JSON_STARS_URL)
print("-" * 40)
print("CircuitPython GitHub Stars", response.json()["stargazers_count"])
print("-" * 40)

OK you now have your ESP32-S2 board set up with a proper secrets.py file and can connect over the Internet. If not, check that your secrets.py file has the right ssid and password and retrace your steps until you get the Internet connectivity working!

A very common need for projects is to know the current date and time. Especially when you want to deep sleep until an event, or you want to change your display based on what day, time, date, etc. it is

Determining the correct local time is really really hard. There are various time zones, Daylight Savings dates, leap seconds, etc. Trying to get NTP time and then back-calculating what the local time is, is extraordinarily hard on a microcontroller just isn't worth the effort and it will get out of sync as laws change anyways.

For that reason, we have the free adafruit.io time service. Free for anyone, with a free adafruit.io account. You do need an account because we have to keep accidentally mis-programmed-board from overwhelming adafruit.io and lock them out temporarily. Again, it's free!

There are other services like WorldTimeAPI, but we don't use those for our guides because they are nice people and we don't want to accidentally overload their site. Also, there's a chance it may eventually go down or also require an account.

Step 1) Make an Adafruit account

It's free! Visit https://accounts.adafruit.com/ to register and make an account if you do not already have one

Step 2) Sign into Adafruit IO

Head over to io.adafruit.com and click Sign In to log into IO using your Adafruit account. It's free and fast to join.

Step 3) Get your Adafruit IO Key

Click on My Key in the top bar

You will get a popup with your Username and Key (In this screenshot, we've covered it with red blocks)

Go to your secrets.py file on your CIRCUITPY drive and add three lines for aio_username, aio_key and timezone so you get something like the following:

# This file is where you keep secret settings, passwords, and tokens!
# If you put them in the code you risk committing that info or sharing it

secrets = {
    'ssid' : 'home_wifi_network',
    'password' : 'wifi_password',
    'aio_username' : 'my_adafruit_io_username',
    'aio_key' : 'my_adafruit_io_key',
    'timezone' : "America/New_York", # http://worldtimeapi.org/timezones
    }

The timezone is optional, if you don't have that entry, adafruit.io will guess your timezone based on geographic IP address lookup. You can visit http://worldtimeapi.org/timezones to see all the time zones available (even though we do not use worldtimeapi for time-keeping we do use the same time zone table)

Step 4) Upload Test Python Code

This code is like the Internet Test code from before, but this time it will connect to adafruit.io and get the local time

import ipaddress
import ssl
import wifi
import socketpool
import adafruit_requests
import secrets


TEXT_URL = "http://wifitest.adafruit.com/testwifi/index.html"
JSON_QUOTES_URL = "https://www.adafruit.com/api/quotes.php"
JSON_STARS_URL = "https://api.github.com/repos/adafruit/circuitpython"

# Get wifi details and more from a secrets.py file
try:
    from secrets import secrets
except ImportError:
    print("WiFi secrets are kept in secrets.py, please add them there!")
    raise

# Get our username, key and desired timezone
aio_username = secrets["aio_username"]
aio_key = secrets["aio_key"]
location = secrets.get("timezone", None)
TIME_URL = "https://io.adafruit.com/api/v2/%s/integrations/time/strftime?x-aio-key=%s" % (aio_username, aio_key)
TIME_URL += "&fmt=%25Y-%25m-%25d+%25H%3A%25M%3A%25S.%25L+%25j+%25u+%25z+%25Z"

print("ESP32-S2 Adafruit IO Time test")

print("My MAC addr:", [hex(i) for i in wifi.radio.mac_address])

print("Available WiFi networks:")
for network in wifi.radio.start_scanning_networks():
    print("\t%s\t\tRSSI: %d\tChannel: %d" % (str(network.ssid, "utf-8"),
            network.rssi, network.channel))
wifi.radio.stop_scanning_networks()

print("Connecting to %s"%secrets["ssid"])
wifi.radio.connect(secrets["ssid"], secrets["password"])
print("Connected to %s!"%secrets["ssid"])
print("My IP address is", wifi.radio.ipv4_address)

ipv4 = ipaddress.ip_address("8.8.4.4")
print("Ping google.com: %f ms" % wifi.radio.ping(ipv4))

pool = socketpool.SocketPool(wifi.radio)
requests = adafruit_requests.Session(pool, ssl.create_default_context())

print("Fetching text from", TIME_URL)
response = requests.get(TIME_URL)
print("-" * 40)
print(response.text)
print("-" * 40)

After running this, you will see something like the below text. We have blocked out the part with the secret username and key data!

Note at the end you will get the date, time, and your timezone! If so, you have correctly configured your secrets.py and can continue to the next steps!

To use all the amazing features of your MagTag with CircuitPython, you must first install a number of libraries. This page covers that process.

Get Latest Adafruit CircuitPython Bundle

Download the Adafruit CircuitPython Library Bundle. You can find the latest release here:

Download the adafruit-circuitpython-bundle-version-mpy-*.zip bundle zip file, and unzip a folder of the same name. Inside you'll find a lib folder. The entire collection of libraries is too large to fit on the CIRCUITPY drive. Therefore, you'll need to copy the necessary libraries to your board individually.

At a minimum, the following libraries are required. Copy the following folders or .mpy files to the lib folder on your CIRCUITPY drive. If the library is a folder, copy the entire folder to the lib folder on your board.

Library folders (copy the whole folder over to lib):

  • adafruit_magtag - This is a helper library designed for using all of the features of the MagTag, including networking, buttons, NeoPixels, etc.
  • adafruit_portalbase - This library is the base library that adafruit_magtag is built on top of.
  • adafruit_bitmap_font - There is fancy font support, and it's easy to make new fonts. This library reads and parses font files.
  • adafruit_display_text - This library displays text on the screen.
  • adafruit_io - This library helps connect the MagTag to our free data logging and viewing service

Library files:

  • adafruit_requests.mpy - This library allows us to perform HTTP requests and get responses back from servers. GET/POST/PUT/PATCH - they're all in here!
  • adafruit_fakerequests.mpy  - This library allows you to create fake HTTP requests by using local files.
  • adafruit_miniqr.mpy  - QR creation library lets us add easy-to-scan 2D barcodes to the E-Ink display
  • neopixel.mpy - This library is used to control the onboard NeoPixels.
  • simpleio.mpy - This library is used for tone generation.

Secrets

Even if you aren't planning to go online with your MagTag, you'll need to have a secrets.py file in the root directory (top level) of your CIRCUITPY drive. If you do not intend to connect to wireless, it does not need to have valid data in it. Here's more info on the secrets.py file.

Library Requirements

In addition to the MagTag-specific libraries, you will also need the progress bar library.

Copy these libraries from the current bundle into the lib folder on your CIRCUITPY drive:

  • adafruit_magtag
  • adafruit_io
  • adafruit_display_text
  • adafruit_bitmap_font
  • adafruit_progressbar
  • simpleio.mpy
  • neopixel.mpy
  • adafruit_requests.mpy

You may have others in your folder, but you must have these ones for the project to work.

Ensure you have libraries that consist of folders still in folders on your device. Please do not copy folder contents all into lib, it won't work at all.

The adafruit_progressbar library makes it easy to create and display progress bars. The code initializes a ProgressBar with a size, location, and some colors. To change the bar, set the progress property, after that, refresh the display so the MagTag will show the updated bar.

These colors can be used to show the 4 available colors on the MagTag screen: 0x000000, 0x666666, 0x999999, 0xFFFFFF.

Simpletest Example

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2021 ladyada for Adafruit Industries
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

"""
Basic progressbar example script
adapted for use on MagTag.
"""
import time
import board
import displayio
import digitalio
from adafruit_progressbar.progressbar import HorizontalProgressBar

# use built in display (PyPortal, PyGamer, PyBadge, CLUE, etc.)
# see guide for setting up external displays (TFT / OLED breakouts, RGB matrices, etc.)
# https://learn.adafruit.com/circuitpython-display-support-using-displayio/display-and-display-bus
display = board.DISPLAY
time.sleep(display.time_to_refresh)

# B/up button will be used to increase the progress
up_btn = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.BUTTON_B)
up_btn.direction = digitalio.Direction.INPUT
up_btn.pull = digitalio.Pull.UP

# C/down button will be used to increase the progress
down_btn = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.BUTTON_C)
down_btn.direction = digitalio.Direction.INPUT
down_btn.pull = digitalio.Pull.UP

# Make the display context
splash = displayio.Group(max_size=10)
display.show(splash)

# set progress bar width and height relative to board's display
BAR_WIDTH = display.width - 40
BAR_HEIGHT = 30

x = display.width // 2 - BAR_WIDTH // 2
y = display.height // 3

# Create a new progress_bar object at (x, y)
progress_bar = HorizontalProgressBar(
    (x, y),
    (BAR_WIDTH, BAR_HEIGHT),
    bar_color=0xFFFFFF,
    outline_color=0xAAAAAA,
    fill_color=0x777777,
)

# Append progress_bar to the splash group
splash.append(progress_bar)

# Get a random starting value within our min/max range
current_progress = time.monotonic() % 101
print(current_progress)
progress_bar.value = current_progress

# refresh the display
display.refresh()

value_incrementor = 3

prev_up = up_btn.value
prev_down = down_btn.value
while True:
    cur_up = up_btn.value
    cur_down = down_btn.value
    do_refresh = False
    # if up_btn was just pressed down
    if not cur_up and prev_up:
        current_progress += value_incrementor
        # Wrap if we get over the maximum value
        if current_progress > progress_bar.maximum:
            current_progress = progress_bar.minimum

        do_refresh = True

    if not cur_down and prev_down:
        current_progress -= value_incrementor
        # Wrap if we get below the minimum value
        if current_progress < progress_bar.minimum:
            current_progress = progress_bar.maximum

        do_refresh = True

    if do_refresh:
        print(current_progress)
        progress_bar.value = current_progress

        time.sleep(display.time_to_refresh)
        display.refresh()
        time.sleep(display.time_to_refresh)

    prev_up = cur_up
    prev_down = cur_down

Now to pull some data from the internet and populate the progress bar with it.

This project will use the Weblate API to fetch the current translated percent for the CircuitPython project into different languages and display it along with a progress bar illustration.

If you're having difficulty running this example, it could be because your MagTag CircuitPython firmware or library needs to be upgraded! Please be sure to follow https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-magtag/circuitpython to install the latest CircuitPython Firmware and then also replace/update ALL the MagTag-specific libraries mentioned here https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-magtag/circuitpython-libraries-2

Custom Font

This project script uses two custom bdf font files. Download the full project zip in the code block below and copy leaguespartan18.bdf and leaguespartan11.bdf into the /fonts directory on your CIRCUITPY drive. Create the fonts directory if it doesn't exist yet. Copy code.py into the main (root) directory of the CIRCUITPY drive.

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2020 Tim C, written for Adafruit Industries
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
"""
Pull the current translated percent of CircuitPython
from Weblate and show it on the screen with text
and a progress bar.

Copy leaguespartan18.bdf and leaguespartan11.bdf
into fonts/ on your CIRCUITPY drive.
"""
import time
from adafruit_magtag.magtag import MagTag
from adafruit_progressbar.progressbar import ProgressBar

# Set up where we'll be fetching data from
DATA_SOURCE = "https://hosted.weblate.org/api/projects/circuitpython/statistics/"
NAME_LOCATION = ["name"]
PERCENT_LOCATION = ["translated_percent"]
URL_LOCATION = ["url"]

magtag = MagTag(
    url=DATA_SOURCE,
    json_path=(NAME_LOCATION, PERCENT_LOCATION, URL_LOCATION),
)

magtag.network.connect()

# name
magtag.add_text(
    text_font="fonts/leaguespartan18.bdf",
    text_position=(
        (magtag.graphics.display.width // 2) - 1,
        20,
    ),
    text_anchor_point=(0.5, 0.5),
)

# percentage
def textpercent_transform(val):
    return "Translated: {}%".format(val)

magtag.add_text(
    text_font="fonts/leaguespartan18.bdf",
    text_position=(
        (magtag.graphics.display.width // 2) - 1,
        45,
    ),
    text_transform=textpercent_transform,
    text_anchor_point=(0.5, 0.5),
)

# URL
def texturl_transform(val):
    return val.replace("https://", "")  # remove known prefix!

magtag.add_text(
    text_font="fonts/leaguespartan11.bdf",
    text_position=(
        (magtag.graphics.display.width // 2) - 1,
        (magtag.graphics.display.height) - 8,
    ),
    text_transform=texturl_transform,
    text_anchor_point=(0.5, 1.0),
)

# set progress bar width and height relative to board's display
BAR_WIDTH = magtag.graphics.display.width - 80
BAR_HEIGHT = 30

BAR_X = magtag.graphics.display.width // 2 - BAR_WIDTH // 2
BAR_Y = 66

# Create a new progress_bar object at (x, y)
progress_bar = ProgressBar(
    BAR_X, BAR_Y, BAR_WIDTH, BAR_HEIGHT, 1.0, bar_color=0x999999, outline_color=0x000000
)

magtag.graphics.splash.append(progress_bar)

timestamp = None

try:
    value = magtag.fetch()
    print("Response is", value)
    progress_bar.progress = value[1] / 100.0
    magtag.refresh()
    magtag.exit_and_deep_sleep(24 * 60 * 60)  # one day
except (ValueError, RuntimeError) as e:
    print("Some error occurred, retrying! -", e)
    magtag.exit_and_deep_sleep(60)  # one minute

Code Overview

The MagTag library handles the text once it is up. Initialize it with the Weblate API url and data path to the translated percent value. The API returns back JSON data like this:

{
    "total": 14688,
    "total_words": 79509,
    "last_change": "2020-11-26T23:24:10.488034Z",
    "recent_changes": 142,
    "translated": 9141,
    "translated_words": 48720,
    "translated_percent": 62.2,
    "translated_words_percent": 61.2,
    "translated_chars": 286810,
    "translated_chars_percent": 61.3,
    "total_chars": 467279,
    "fuzzy": 82,
    "fuzzy_percent": 0.5,
    "failing": 99,
    "failing_percent": 0.6,
    "name": "CircuitPython",
    "url": "https://hosted.weblate.org/projects/circuitpython/"
}

The program gets the translated_percent, url, and name values. Inside the main loop magtag.fetch() will return these values. It captures the results into a variable and then uses it to update the progress bar. The display must be refreshed after updating the progress.

The code uses the adafruit_magtag library to fetch the data from Weblate, and to show the text output on the display. The library creates its own displayio.Group internally that is shown on the display. Add a progress bar to that Group like this: magtag.graphics.splash.append(progress_bar).

This project will pull the current local time from adafruit.io and then use it to calculate the percentage complete for the year.

A separate file on your MagTag, secrets.py, is used to store the information you need to access WiFi and Adafruit IO. You will need a free account Adafruit IO account, your WiFi access information, and your location (for localized timezone management).

Steps to set up your secrets.py file:

1. See the top part of this page on the MagTag for how to add the WiFi and timezone parts of the secrets.py file.

2. Set up an Adafruit IO account, if you do not have one. It's free and not complex.

3. Update the secrets.py file fields aio_username and aio_key with the values from your Adafruit IO account. Your secrets.py file should look similar to this:

# This file is where you keep secret settings, passwords, and tokens!
# If you put them in the code you risk committing that info or sharing it

secrets = {
    'ssid' : 'your-ssid-here',
    'password' : 'your-password-here',
    'aio_username' : "your-aio-username-here",
    'aio_key' : 'your-aio-key-here',
    'location' : 'New York, US'
}

Custom Font

This program uses as custom bdf font file. Download the full project zip in the code listing below and copy epilogue18.bdf into the /fonts directory in your CIRCUITPY drive. Create the /fonts directory if it doesn't exist yet. The code.py file should be in the main (root) directory of the CIRCUITPY drive.

Deep Sleep

This project uses the new deep sleep API to save power so it can run longer on a battery before needing a recharge. See this guide: https://learn.adafruit.com/deep-sleep-with-circuitpython to learn more!

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2020 Tim C, written for Adafruit Industries
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
"""
Show the progress through the year with text and a progress bar.

Copy epilogue18.bdf into fonts/ on your CIRCUITPY drive.

"""
import time
from adafruit_magtag.magtag import MagTag
from adafruit_progressbar.progressbar import ProgressBar
import rtc

def days_in_year(date_obj):
    # check for leap year
    if (date_obj.tm_year % 100 != 0 or date_obj.tm_year % 400 == 0) and date_obj.tm_year % 4 == 0:
        return 366
    return 365

magtag = MagTag()
magtag.network.connect()

magtag.add_text(
    text_font="/fonts/epilogue18.bdf",
    text_position=(
        (magtag.graphics.display.width // 2) - 1,
        24,
    ),
    text_anchor_point=(0.5, 0.5),
    is_data=False,
)
magtag.set_text("Year Progress:", auto_refresh=False)

magtag.add_text(
    text_font="/fonts/epilogue18.bdf",
    text_position=(
        (magtag.graphics.display.width // 2) - 1,
        55,
    ),
    text_anchor_point=(0.5, 0.5),
    is_data=False,
)

# set progress bar width and height relative to board's display
BAR_WIDTH = magtag.graphics.display.width - 80
BAR_HEIGHT = 30

BAR_X = magtag.graphics.display.width // 2 - BAR_WIDTH // 2
BAR_Y = 80

# Create a new progress_bar object at (x, y)
progress_bar = ProgressBar(
    BAR_X, BAR_Y, BAR_WIDTH, BAR_HEIGHT, 1.0, bar_color=0x999999, outline_color=0x000000
)

magtag.graphics.splash.append(progress_bar)


try:
    magtag.network.get_local_time()
    now = rtc.RTC().datetime
    progress_bar.progress = now.tm_yday / days_in_year(now)
    magtag.set_text(
        "{:.2f}%".format(now.tm_yday / days_in_year(now) * 100.0), index=1
    )

    print(now)
    magtag.exit_and_deep_sleep(24 * 60 * 60)  # one day

except (ValueError, RuntimeError) as e:
    print("Some error occurred, retrying after 1 minute! -", e)
    magtag.exit_and_deep_sleep(60)  # one  minute

Code Overview

This code uses the adafruit_magtag library to fetch the current time, and to show the text output on the display. The library creates its own displayio.Group internally that is shown on the display. Add the progress bar to that Group like this magtag.graphics.splash.append(progress_bar).

You can use magtag.network.get_local_time() to fetch the current time from Adafruit IO. Then you can access it with rtc.RTC().datetime. Use its field tm_yday, along with the total days in the year (accounting for leap days every 4 years) to divide out the year's progress. Set the progress on the progress bar before calling magtag.set_text() which is nice because it will handle the screen refresh.

To put the MagTag to sleep we use the function magtag.exit_and_deep_sleep()passing in the amount of seconds that it should sleep. This script sleeps for one day if everything works successfully, and one minute if anything failed so that it will try again shortly.

This guide was first published on Dec 02, 2020. It was last updated on Dec 02, 2020.