Text Editor

Adafruit recommends using the Mu editor for editing your CircuitPython code. You can get more info in this guide.

Alternatively, you can use any text editor that saves simple text files.

Download the Project Bundle

Your project will use a specific set of CircuitPython libraries and the code.py file, along with a folder full of key configuration files. To get everything you need, click on the Download Project Bundle link below, and uncompress the .zip file.

Drag the contents of the uncompressed bundle directory onto your MACROPAD board's CIRCUITPY drive, replacing any existing files or directories with the same names, and adding any new ones that are necessary.

Inside the macros folder, you’ll likely want to pluck out any macro settings files to discard. They’re prefixed with “mac” and “win”for MacOS and Windows since these systems have different modifier keys. These files are just a starting point for reference…more likely, you’ll start creating your own.

If updating from a prior version of this code, move any key configuration files that you’ve created or edited to a safe place first, so they’re not overwritten or lost, then move them back to the CIRCUITPY/macros folder after updating.

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2021 Phillip Burgess for Adafruit Industries
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

A macro/hotkey program for Adafruit MACROPAD. Macro setups are stored in the
/macros folder (configurable below), load up just the ones you're likely to
use. Plug into computer's USB port, use dial to select an application macro
set, press MACROPAD keys to send key sequences and other USB protocols.

# pylint: disable=import-error, unused-import, too-few-public-methods

import os
import time
import displayio
import terminalio
from adafruit_display_shapes.rect import Rect
from adafruit_display_text import label
from adafruit_macropad import MacroPad

# CONFIGURABLES ------------------------

MACRO_FOLDER = '/macros'

# CLASSES AND FUNCTIONS ----------------

class App:
    """ Class representing a host-side application, for which we have a set
        of macro sequences. Project code was originally more complex and
        this was helpful, but maybe it's excessive now?"""
    def __init__(self, appdata):
        self.name = appdata['name']
        self.macros = appdata['macros']

    def switch(self):
        """ Activate application settings; update OLED labels and LED
            colors. """
        group[13].text = self.name   # Application name
        for i in range(12):
            if i < len(self.macros): # Key in use, set label + LED color
                macropad.pixels[i] = self.macros[i][0]
                group[i].text = self.macros[i][1]
            else:  # Key not in use, no label or LED
                macropad.pixels[i] = 0
                group[i].text = ''

# INITIALIZATION -----------------------

macropad = MacroPad()
macropad.display.auto_refresh = False
macropad.pixels.auto_write = False

# Set up displayio group with all the labels
group = displayio.Group()
for key_index in range(12):
    x = key_index % 3
    y = key_index // 3
    group.append(label.Label(terminalio.FONT, text='', color=0xFFFFFF,
                             anchored_position=((macropad.display.width - 1) * x / 2,
                                                macropad.display.height - 1 -
                                                (3 - y) * 12),
                             anchor_point=(x / 2, 1.0)))
group.append(Rect(0, 0, macropad.display.width, 12, fill=0xFFFFFF))
group.append(label.Label(terminalio.FONT, text='', color=0x000000,
                         anchored_position=(macropad.display.width//2, -2),
                         anchor_point=(0.5, 0.0)))
macropad.display.root_group = group

# Load all the macro key setups from .py files in MACRO_FOLDER
apps = []
files = os.listdir(MACRO_FOLDER)
for filename in files:
    if filename.endswith('.py') and not filename.startswith('._'):
            module = __import__(MACRO_FOLDER + '/' + filename[:-3])
        except (SyntaxError, ImportError, AttributeError, KeyError, NameError,
                IndexError, TypeError) as err:
            print("ERROR in", filename)
            import traceback
            traceback.print_exception(err, err, err.__traceback__)

if not apps:
    group[13].text = 'NO MACRO FILES FOUND'
    while True:

last_position = None
last_encoder_switch = macropad.encoder_switch_debounced.pressed
app_index = 0

# MAIN LOOP ----------------------------

while True:
    # Read encoder position. If it's changed, switch apps.
    position = macropad.encoder
    if position != last_position:
        app_index = position % len(apps)
        last_position = position

    # Handle encoder button. If state has changed, and if there's a
    # corresponding macro, set up variables to act on this just like
    # the keypad keys, as if it were a 13th key/macro.
    encoder_switch = macropad.encoder_switch_debounced.pressed
    if encoder_switch != last_encoder_switch:
        last_encoder_switch = encoder_switch
        if len(apps[app_index].macros) < 13:
            continue    # No 13th macro, just resume main loop
        key_number = 12 # else process below as 13th macro
        pressed = encoder_switch
        event = macropad.keys.events.get()
        if not event or event.key_number >= len(apps[app_index].macros):
            continue # No key events, or no corresponding macro, resume loop
        key_number = event.key_number
        pressed = event.pressed

    # If code reaches here, a key or the encoder button WAS pressed/released
    # and there IS a corresponding macro available for it...other situations
    # are avoided by 'continue' statements above which resume the loop.

    sequence = apps[app_index].macros[key_number][2]
    if pressed:
        # 'sequence' is an arbitrary-length list, each item is one of:
        # Positive integer (e.g. Keycode.KEYPAD_MINUS): key pressed
        # Negative integer: (absolute value) key released
        # Float (e.g. 0.25): delay in seconds
        # String (e.g. "Foo"): corresponding keys pressed & released
        # List []: one or more Consumer Control codes (can also do float delay)
        # Dict {}: mouse buttons/motion (might extend in future)
        if key_number < 12: # No pixel for encoder button
            macropad.pixels[key_number] = 0xFFFFFF
        for item in sequence:
            if isinstance(item, int):
                if item >= 0:
            elif isinstance(item, float):
            elif isinstance(item, str):
            elif isinstance(item, list):
                for code in item:
                    if isinstance(code, int):
                    if isinstance(code, float):
            elif isinstance(item, dict):
                if 'buttons' in item:
                    if item['buttons'] >= 0:
                macropad.mouse.move(item['x'] if 'x' in item else 0,
                                    item['y'] if 'y' in item else 0,
                                    item['wheel'] if 'wheel' in item else 0)
                if 'tone' in item:
                    if item['tone'] > 0:
                elif 'play' in item:
        # Release any still-pressed keys, consumer codes, mouse buttons
        # Keys and mouse buttons are individually released this way (rather
        # than release_all()) because pad supports multi-key rollover, e.g.
        # could have a meta key or right-mouse held down by one macro and
        # press/release keys/buttons with others. Navigate popups, etc.
        for item in sequence:
            if isinstance(item, int):
                if item >= 0:
            elif isinstance(item, dict):
                if 'buttons' in item:
                    if item['buttons'] >= 0:
                elif 'tone' in item:
        if key_number < 12: # No pixel for encoder button
            macropad.pixels[key_number] = apps[app_index].macros[key_number][0]

This guide was first published on Jul 07, 2021. It was last updated on Oct 19, 2021.

This page (Project Code) was last updated on Dec 03, 2023.

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