This guide will walk through how to compile and install bluez on the Raspberry Pi. Bluez is the Linux Bluetooth system and allows a Raspberry Pi to communicate with Bluetooth classic and Bluetooth low energy (LE) devices. Although bluez is quite full-featured it can be somewhat challenging to install and use. However this guide will show you step-by-step what you need to do to compile and install the latest version of bluez. Grab a Bluetooth USB adapter, like this handy Bluetooth 4.0 USB module, and follow this guide to get setup using bluez in almost no time.
As a companion to this guide, check out the following video which dives into Bluetooth low energy and installing and using bluez on the Pi:
In addition you might want to read this Introduction to Bluetooth Low Energy guide for more information on BLE.
You will also want to be familiar with the basics of using a Raspberry Pi, like loading an operating system on a microSD card and connecting to a command terminal on the Pi. Check out the learn Raspberry Pi series for more information on the basics.