OK now that the sensors are calibrated, and you know what the options are for filters - its time to FUSE THOSE SENSORS! That's what we're here for, right?

Install the Adafruit AHRS library from the library manager. We strongly recommend using Arduino IDE 1.8.10+ because it will automatically install any dependancy libraries. See all dependencies here

Open up the calibrated_orientation sketch

At the top of the sketch you'll see a section where you can #include different sensor sets. Not every sensor-set is defined, but our most popular ones are! (You'll need sensors that are Adafruit_Sensor compatible.)

Uncomment whichever kit you are using, and comment out the rest

// uncomment one combo 9-DoF!
#include "LSM6DS_LIS3MDL.h"  // can adjust to LSM6DS33, LSM6DS3U, LSM6DSOX...
//#include "LSM9DS.h"           // LSM9DS1 or LSM9DS0
//#include "NXP_FXOS_FXAS.h"  // NXP 9-DoF breakout

Next, you can select which fusion algorithm you want to try:

// pick your filter! slower == better quality output
//Adafruit_NXPSensorFusion filter; // slowest
Adafruit_Madgwick filter;  // faster than NXP
//Adafruit_Mahony filter;  // fastest/smalleset

By default we'll be performing a calculation every 10 ms (100Hz) and printing out 1 out of 10 calculations, however you can adjust those numbers up or down in this section as well as adding debug output


OK now compile & upload!

Open the serial console and you'll see the sensors detected and then text like this

Orientation: 180.82 -1.65 2.48

These are the Euler angle outputs from the fusion algorithm

You'll also see text like

Quaternion: 0.7545, 0.2937, 0.5858, -0.0356

These are the quaternion outputs.


Euler Angles

Euler angles describe orientation (in degrees) around a single reference point in three-dimensional space.

Various names are employed for the three angles, but the most common terminology with aircraft is Roll (x), Pitch (y) and Yaw (z).

The illustration below from the Wikipedia article on Euler angles should illustrate the concept clearly. You normally have both positive and negative angles (-180° to 180°) depending on the direction the airplane is tilted, with 0° in every direction corresponding to the airplane being perfectly aligned with each axis:

The print out of data is is in Yaw (Z) Pitch (Y) Roll (X) order, So if you get

Orientation: 163.00 -4.90 33.56

The yaw is 163 degrees, pitch is -4.90 degrees and roll is about 33.56 degrees. The sketch will keep updating itself with the latest values at whatever speed we've set in the example sketch.

Try twisting the sensor along each axis as printed on the sensor breakout/PCB to see the numbers change from -180~180 for each axis.

This guide was first published on Feb 17, 2020. It was last updated on Feb 17, 2020.

This page (Let's fuse!) was last updated on May 10, 2021.

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