If you'd like to maximize the battery life on a CircuitPython project, you need to be able to put your program to sleep when it's not doing something. For instance, you may want to read a temperature or fetch some data only every few minutes or hours. In between, your board can go to sleep and draw only a tiny amount of power from the battery.
If you're using a display that is visible even when powered off, such as the e-ink display on the Adafruit MagTag, then you can sleep between updates to the display.
This guide will talk about using the sleep and wake-up alarm capabilities that are available in CircuitPython.
Not all board families have this capability, but the developers will be adding more!