The Arduino Nano RP2040 Connect has a PDM microphone onboard, the MP34DT05. It can be controlled in CircuitPython with board.MICROPHONE_CLOCK and board.MICROPHONE_DATA with the audiobusio library. The example code below has been modified from the PDM Microphone Breakout Learn Guide. Here the PDM's input data is visualized in two ways. First, it is plotted to the serial plotter in Mu. Secondly, it's sent to an LED via PWM. 


  • LED's anode to pin A1 with a 220 Ω resistor
  • LED's cathode to GND

You can access the code by downloading the Project Bundle. To do this, click on the Download Project Bundle button in the window below. It will download as a zipped folder.

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2021 Liz Clark for Adafruit Industries
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

'''Adapted from the example code
blob/master/PDM_Microphone/ '''

import time
import array
import math
import board
import audiobusio
import pwmio
import simpleio

# LED setup
led = pwmio.PWMOut(board.A1, frequency=5000, duty_cycle=0)

# Remove DC bias before computing RMS.
def mean(values):
    return sum(values) / len(values)

def normalized_rms(values):
    minbuf = int(mean(values))
    samples_sum = sum(
        float(sample - minbuf) * (sample - minbuf)
        for sample in values

    return math.sqrt(samples_sum / len(values))

mic = audiobusio.PDMIn(board.MICROPHONE_CLOCK,
                       board.MICROPHONE_DATA, sample_rate=16000, bit_depth=16)
samples = array.array('H', [0] * 160)

while True:

    mic.record(samples, len(samples))
    magnitude = normalized_rms(samples)

	#  mapping mic's level to LED PWM range
    mapped_value = simpleio.map_range(magnitude, 75 , 300, 0, 65535)

	#  sending mapped value to LED for PWM
    led.duty_cycle = int(mapped_value)
	#  optional logging for mapped_value
    #  print((mapped_value,))

Upload the Code and Libraries to the Arduino Nano RP2040 Connect

After downloading the Project Bundle, plug your board into the computer USB port. You should see a new flash drive appear in the computer's File Explorer or Finder (depending on your operating system) called CIRCUITPY. Unzip the folder and copy the lib folder and file to the Arduino Nano RP2040 Connect's CIRCUITPY drive. Then, rename to

Your Arduino Nano RP2040 Connect CIRCUITPY drive should look like this after copying the lib folder and file.

Note: the only additional library needed for this code is simpleio.mpy. However, the project bundle includes all of the libraries for all of the code examples for this Learn Guide.

Plotting Data

To view the plotter in Mu, click on the Plotter icon at the top of the Mu window.

This will open a plotter window at the bottom of your Mu window. As the microphone brings in data, you'll see it plot in real-time.

Mic Data as PWM

First, led is setup as a PWM output.

# LED setup
led = pwmio.PWMOut(board.A1, frequency=5000, duty_cycle=0)

Then, in the loop, map_range is used to map magnitude's range of 75 to 300 to the PWM range of 0 to 65535. magnitude is the variable that is holding the mic's incoming data. Starting the range at 75 for magnitude allows for the filtering out of background noise.

#  mapping mic's level to LED PWM range
    mapped_value = simpleio.map_range(magnitude, 75 , 300, 0, 65535)

Finally, mapped_value is sent as an integer to the led's duty_cycle for PWM.

#  sending mapped value to LED for PWM
    led.duty_cycle = int(mapped_value)

Your LED's brightness will change depending on the volume of sound being heard by the PDM mic.

This guide was first published on Jun 04, 2021. It was last updated on 2021-06-04 14:46:06 -0400.

This page (PDM Microphone) was last updated on May 21, 2022.

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