This example is based on a staple of the 8-bit demoscene days, where the goal was to create impressive animation when RAM and CPU cycles were scarce. The fire effect translates well to the bright colors and limited pixels of the LED matrix. It’s not based on real flame physics — mathematically it’s fairly crude and comments in the code below explain each step — but like those animated flame lights in stores, it does a reasonable job fooling the eye!

Use the “Download Project Bundle” button below to get this CircuitPython code and all required libraries. There’s also an Arduino version of this project on a later page.

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2021 Phil Burgess for Adafruit Industries
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

"""
FIRE EFFECT for Adafruit EyeLights (LED Glasses + Driver).
A demoscene classic that produces a cool analog-esque look with
modest means, iteratively scrolling and blurring raster data.
"""

import random
from supervisor import reload
import board
from busio import I2C
import adafruit_is31fl3741
from adafruit_is31fl3741.adafruit_ledglasses import LED_Glasses


# HARDWARE SETUP ---------

# Manually declare I2C (not board.I2C() directly) to access 1 MHz speed...
i2c = I2C(board.SCL, board.SDA, frequency=1000000)

# Initialize the IS31 LED driver, buffered for smoother animation
glasses = LED_Glasses(i2c, allocate=adafruit_is31fl3741.MUST_BUFFER)
glasses.show()  # Clear any residue on startup
glasses.global_current = 20  # Just middlin' bright, please


# INITIALIZE TABLES ------

# The raster data is intentionally one row taller than the LED matrix.
# Each frame, random noise is put in the bottom (off matrix) row. There's
# also an extra column on either side, to avoid needing edge clipping when
# neighboring pixels (left, center, right) are averaged later.
data = [[0] * (glasses.width + 2) for _ in range(glasses.height + 1)]
# (2D array where elements are accessed as data[y][x], initialized to 0)

# Each element in the raster is a single value representing brightness.
# A pre-computed lookup table maps these to RGB colors. This one happens
# to have 32 elements, but as we're not on an actual paletted hardware
# framebuffer it could be any size really (with suitable changes throughout).
gamma = 2.6
colormap = []
for n in range(32):
    n *= 3 / 31  #  0.0 <= n <= 3.0 from start to end of map
    if n <= 1:  #   0.0 <= n <= 1.0 : black to red
        r = n  #    r,g,b are initially calculated 0 to 1 range
        g = b = 0
    elif n <= 2:  # 1.0 <= n <= 2.0 : red to yellow
        r = 1
        g = n - 1
        b = 0
    else:  #        2.0 <= n <= 3.0 : yellow to white
        r = g = 1
        b = n - 2
    r = int((r ** gamma) * 255)  #               Gamma correction linearizes
    g = int((g ** gamma) * 255)  #               perceived brightness, then
    b = int((b ** gamma) * 255)  #               scale to 0-255 for LEDs and
    colormap.append((r << 16) | (g << 8) | b)  # store as 'packed' RGB color


# UTILITY FUNCTIONS -----


def interp(ring, led1, led2, level1, level2):
    """Linearly interpolate a range of brightnesses between two LEDs of
    one eyeglass ring, mapping through the global color table. LED range
    is non-inclusive; the first and last LEDs (which overlap matrix pixels)
    are not set. led2 MUST be > led1. LED indices may be >= 24 to 'wrap
    around' the seam at the top of the ring."""
    span = led2 - led1 + 1  #  Number of LEDs
    delta = level2 - level1  # Difference in brightness
    for led in range(led1 + 1, led2):  # For each LED in-between,
        ratio = (led - led1) / span  #   interpolate brightness level
        ring[led % 24] = colormap[min(31, int(level1 + delta * ratio))]


# MAIN LOOP -------------

while True:
    # The try/except here is because VERY INFREQUENTLY the I2C bus will
    # encounter an error when accessing the LED driver, whether from bumping
    # around the wires or sometimes an I2C device just gets wedged. To more
    # robustly handle the latter, the code will restart if that happens.
    try:

        # At the start of each frame, fill the bottom (off matrix) row
        # with random noise. To make things less strobey, old data from the
        # prior frame still has about 1/3 'weight' here. There's no special
        # real-world significance to the 85, it's just an empirically-
        # derived fudge factor that happens to work well with the size of
        # the color map.
        for x in range(1, 19):
            data[5][x] = 0.33 * data[5][x] + 0.67 * random.random() * 85
        # If this were actual SRS BZNS 31337 D3M0SC3N3 code, great care
        # would be taken to avoid floating-point math. But with few pixels,
        # and so this code might be less obtuse, a casual approach is taken.

        # Each row (except last) is then processed, top-to-bottom. This
        # order is important because it's an iterative algorithm...the
        # output of each frame serves as input to the next, and the steps
        # below (looking at the pixels below each row) are what makes the
        # "flames" appear to move "up."
        for y in range(5):  #         Current row of pixels
            y1 = data[y + 1]  #       One row down
            for x in range(1, 19):  # Skip left, right columns in data
                # Each pixel is sort of the average of the three pixels
                # under it (below left, below center, below right), but not
                # exactly. The below center pixel has more 'weight' than the
                # others, and the result is scaled to intentionally land
                # short, making each row bit darker as they move up.
                data[y][x] = (y1[x] + ((y1[x - 1] + y1[x + 1]) * 0.33)) * 0.35
                glasses.pixel(x - 1, y, colormap[min(31, int(data[y][x]))])

        # That's all well and good for the matrix, but what about the extra
        # LEDs in the rings? Since these don't align to the pixel grid,
        # rather than trying to extend the raster data and filter it in
        # somehow, we'll fill those arcs with colors interpolated from the
        # endpoints where rings and matrix intersect. Maybe not perfect,
        # but looks okay enough!
        interp(glasses.left_ring, 7, 17, data[4][8], data[4][1])
        interp(glasses.left_ring, 21, 29, data[0][2], data[2][8])
        interp(glasses.right_ring, 7, 17, data[4][18], data[4][11])
        interp(glasses.right_ring, 19, 27, data[2][11], data[0][17])

        glasses.show()  # Buffered mode MUST use show() to refresh matrix

    except OSError:  # See "try" notes above regarding rare I2C errors.
        print("Restarting")
        reload()

This guide was first published on Oct 12, 2021. It was last updated on 2021-10-18 13:27:30 -0400.

This page (Fire) was last updated on Dec 01, 2021.

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