Your microcontroller board comes with a lovely TFT display built right in. The Arduino ST7735 and ST7789 Library enables you to use the TFT on your board with Arduino. This page shows you how to install the necessary libraries, and provides a graphics test example.

Arduino Library Installation

You'll need to install the ST7735 and ST7789 library to compile and run the following example. Open the Arduino IDE and then open the Library manager.

Click the Manage Libraries ... menu item, search for ST7789, and select the Adafruit ST7735 and ST7789 Library:

When asked to install any dependencies, click Install all.

Graphics Test Example Code

The next thing you'll want to do is load the example code onto your board.

You can find the example through the Arduino IDE by clicking File > Adafruit ST7735 and ST7789 Library > graphicstest_feather_esp32s2_tft.

/**************************************************************************
  This is a library for several Adafruit displays based on ST77* drivers.

  Works with the Adafruit ESP32-S2 TFT Feather
    ----> http://www.adafruit.com/products/5300

  Check out the links above for our tutorials and wiring diagrams.

  Adafruit invests time and resources providing this open source code,
  please support Adafruit and open-source hardware by purchasing
  products from Adafruit!

  Written by Limor Fried/Ladyada for Adafruit Industries.
  MIT license, all text above must be included in any redistribution
 **************************************************************************/

#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>    // Core graphics library
#include <Adafruit_ST7789.h> // Hardware-specific library for ST7789
#include <SPI.h>

// Use dedicated hardware SPI pins
Adafruit_ST7789 tft = Adafruit_ST7789(TFT_CS, TFT_DC, TFT_RST);

float p = 3.1415926;

void setup(void) {
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.print(F("Hello! Feather TFT Test"));

  // turn on backlite
  pinMode(TFT_BACKLITE, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(TFT_BACKLITE, HIGH);

  // turn on the TFT / I2C power supply
  pinMode(TFT_I2C_POWER, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(TFT_I2C_POWER, HIGH);
  delay(10);

  // initialize TFT
  tft.init(135, 240); // Init ST7789 240x135
  tft.setRotation(3);
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);

  Serial.println(F("Initialized"));

  uint16_t time = millis();
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  time = millis() - time;

  Serial.println(time, DEC);
  delay(500);

  // large block of text
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  testdrawtext(
      "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur "
      "adipiscing ante sed nibh tincidunt feugiat. Maecenas enim massa, "
      "fringilla sed malesuada et, malesuada sit amet turpis. Sed porttitor "
      "neque ut ante pretium vitae malesuada nunc bibendum. Nullam aliquet "
      "ultrices massa eu hendrerit. Ut sed nisi lorem. In vestibulum purus a "
      "tortor imperdiet posuere. ",
      ST77XX_WHITE);
  delay(1000);

  // tft print function!
  tftPrintTest();
  delay(4000);

  // a single pixel
  tft.drawPixel(tft.width() / 2, tft.height() / 2, ST77XX_GREEN);
  delay(500);

  // line draw test
  testlines(ST77XX_YELLOW);
  delay(500);

  // optimized lines
  testfastlines(ST77XX_RED, ST77XX_BLUE);
  delay(500);

  testdrawrects(ST77XX_GREEN);
  delay(500);

  testfillrects(ST77XX_YELLOW, ST77XX_MAGENTA);
  delay(500);

  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  testfillcircles(10, ST77XX_BLUE);
  testdrawcircles(10, ST77XX_WHITE);
  delay(500);

  testroundrects();
  delay(500);

  testtriangles();
  delay(500);

  mediabuttons();
  delay(500);

  Serial.println("done");
  delay(1000);
}

void loop() {
  tft.invertDisplay(true);
  delay(500);
  tft.invertDisplay(false);
  delay(500);
}

void testlines(uint16_t color) {
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  for (int16_t x = 0; x < tft.width(); x += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(0, 0, x, tft.height() - 1, color);
    delay(0);
  }
  for (int16_t y = 0; y < tft.height(); y += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(0, 0, tft.width() - 1, y, color);
    delay(0);
  }

  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  for (int16_t x = 0; x < tft.width(); x += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(tft.width() - 1, 0, x, tft.height() - 1, color);
    delay(0);
  }
  for (int16_t y = 0; y < tft.height(); y += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(tft.width() - 1, 0, 0, y, color);
    delay(0);
  }

  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  for (int16_t x = 0; x < tft.width(); x += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(0, tft.height() - 1, x, 0, color);
    delay(0);
  }
  for (int16_t y = 0; y < tft.height(); y += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(0, tft.height() - 1, tft.width() - 1, y, color);
    delay(0);
  }

  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  for (int16_t x = 0; x < tft.width(); x += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(tft.width() - 1, tft.height() - 1, x, 0, color);
    delay(0);
  }
  for (int16_t y = 0; y < tft.height(); y += 6) {
    tft.drawLine(tft.width() - 1, tft.height() - 1, 0, y, color);
    delay(0);
  }
}

void testdrawtext(char *text, uint16_t color) {
  tft.setCursor(0, 0);
  tft.setTextColor(color);
  tft.setTextWrap(true);
  tft.print(text);
}

void testfastlines(uint16_t color1, uint16_t color2) {
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  for (int16_t y = 0; y < tft.height(); y += 5) {
    tft.drawFastHLine(0, y, tft.width(), color1);
  }
  for (int16_t x = 0; x < tft.width(); x += 5) {
    tft.drawFastVLine(x, 0, tft.height(), color2);
  }
}

void testdrawrects(uint16_t color) {
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  for (int16_t x = 0; x < tft.width(); x += 6) {
    tft.drawRect(tft.width() / 2 - x / 2, tft.height() / 2 - x / 2, x, x,
                 color);
  }
}

void testfillrects(uint16_t color1, uint16_t color2) {
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  for (int16_t x = tft.width() - 1; x > 6; x -= 6) {
    tft.fillRect(tft.width() / 2 - x / 2, tft.height() / 2 - x / 2, x, x,
                 color1);
    tft.drawRect(tft.width() / 2 - x / 2, tft.height() / 2 - x / 2, x, x,
                 color2);
  }
}

void testfillcircles(uint8_t radius, uint16_t color) {
  for (int16_t x = radius; x < tft.width(); x += radius * 2) {
    for (int16_t y = radius; y < tft.height(); y += radius * 2) {
      tft.fillCircle(x, y, radius, color);
    }
  }
}

void testdrawcircles(uint8_t radius, uint16_t color) {
  for (int16_t x = 0; x < tft.width() + radius; x += radius * 2) {
    for (int16_t y = 0; y < tft.height() + radius; y += radius * 2) {
      tft.drawCircle(x, y, radius, color);
    }
  }
}

void testtriangles() {
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  uint16_t color = 0xF800;
  int t;
  int w = tft.width() / 2;
  int x = tft.height() - 1;
  int y = 0;
  int z = tft.width();
  for (t = 0; t <= 15; t++) {
    tft.drawTriangle(w, y, y, x, z, x, color);
    x -= 4;
    y += 4;
    z -= 4;
    color += 100;
  }
}

void testroundrects() {
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  uint16_t color = 100;
  int i;
  int t;
  for (t = 0; t <= 4; t += 1) {
    int x = 0;
    int y = 0;
    int w = tft.width() - 2;
    int h = tft.height() - 2;
    for (i = 0; i <= 16; i += 1) {
      tft.drawRoundRect(x, y, w, h, 5, color);
      x += 2;
      y += 3;
      w -= 4;
      h -= 6;
      color += 1100;
    }
    color += 100;
  }
}

void tftPrintTest() {
  tft.setTextWrap(false);
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  tft.setCursor(0, 30);
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_RED);
  tft.setTextSize(1);
  tft.println("Hello World!");
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_YELLOW);
  tft.setTextSize(2);
  tft.println("Hello World!");
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_GREEN);
  tft.setTextSize(3);
  tft.println("Hello World!");
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_BLUE);
  tft.setTextSize(4);
  tft.print(1234.567);
  delay(1500);
  tft.setCursor(0, 0);
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_WHITE);
  tft.setTextSize(0);
  tft.println("Hello World!");
  tft.setTextSize(1);
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_GREEN);
  tft.print(p, 6);
  tft.println(" Want pi?");
  tft.println(" ");
  tft.print(8675309, HEX); // print 8,675,309 out in HEX!
  tft.println(" Print HEX!");
  tft.println(" ");
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_WHITE);
  tft.println("Sketch has been");
  tft.println("running for: ");
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_MAGENTA);
  tft.print(millis() / 1000);
  tft.setTextColor(ST77XX_WHITE);
  tft.print(" seconds.");
}

void mediabuttons() {
  // play
  tft.fillScreen(ST77XX_BLACK);
  tft.fillRoundRect(25, 5, 78, 60, 8, ST77XX_WHITE);
  tft.fillTriangle(42, 12, 42, 60, 90, 40, ST77XX_RED);
  delay(500);
  // pause
  tft.fillRoundRect(25, 70, 78, 60, 8, ST77XX_WHITE);
  tft.fillRoundRect(39, 78, 20, 45, 5, ST77XX_GREEN);
  tft.fillRoundRect(69, 78, 20, 45, 5, ST77XX_GREEN);
  delay(500);
  // play color
  tft.fillTriangle(42, 12, 42, 60, 90, 40, ST77XX_BLUE);
  delay(50);
  // pause color
  tft.fillRoundRect(39, 78, 20, 45, 5, ST77XX_RED);
  tft.fillRoundRect(69, 78, 20, 45, 5, ST77XX_RED);
  // play color
  tft.fillTriangle(42, 12, 42, 60, 90, 40, ST77XX_GREEN);
}

The initial setup in this example is specific to your board.

First, create an instance of the TFT, passing in the appropriate pins.

Adafruit_ST7789 tft = Adafruit_ST7789(TFT_CS, TFT_DC, TFT_RST);

Next, you'll turn on the backlight.

pinMode(TFT_BACKLITE, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(TFT_BACKLITE, HIGH);

Then, you'll turn on the power to the TFT.

pinMode(TFT_I2C_POWER, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(TFT_I2C_POWER, HIGH);
delay(10);

Finally, you'll initialise the display with the width and height in pixels. Then, you'll set the rotation.

tft.init(135, 240);
tft.setRotation(3);

Now, you're ready to display all sorts of text and graphics on your TFT. That's all there is to using the built in TFT on your board with Arduino!

For more details about this example, check out this guide.

This guide was first published on Jan 12, 2022. It was last updated on 2022-04-13 12:04:15 -0400.

This page (Built-In TFT) was last updated on May 28, 2022.

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