The first and most basic program you can upload to your Arduino is the classic Blink sketch. This takes something on the board and makes it, well, blink! On and off. It's a great way to make sure everything is working and you're uploading your sketch to the right board and right configuration.

When all else fails, you can always come back to Blink!

Pre-Flight Check: Get Arduino IDE & Hardware Set Up

This lesson assumes you have Arduino IDE set up. This is a generalized checklist, some elements may not apply to your hardware. If you haven't yet, check the previous steps in the guide to make sure you:

  • Install the very latest Arduino IDE for Desktop (not all boards are supported by the Web IDE so we don't recommend it)
  • Install any board support packages (BSP) required for your hardware. Some boards are built in defaults on the IDE, but lots are not! You may need to install plug-in support which is called the BSP.
  • Get a Data/Sync USB cable for connecting your hardware. A significant amount of problems folks have stem from not having a USB cable with data pins. Yes, these cursed cables roam the land, making your life hard. If you find a USB cable that doesn't work for data/sync, throw it away immediately! There is no need to keep it around, cables are very inexpensive these days.
  • Install any drivers required - If you have a board with a FTDI or CP210x chip, you may need to get separate drivers. If your board has native USB, it probably doesn't need anything. After installing, reboot to make sure the driver sinks in.
  • Connect the board to your computer. If your board has a power LED, make sure its lit. Is there a power switch? Make sure its turned On!

The Feather ESP32 V2 has no power LED or power switch. Make sure you download the CP2104 / CP2102N USB Driver if you haven't already. Check out the IDE Setup page for details.

Start up Arduino IDE and Select Board/Port

OK now you are prepared! Open the Arduino IDE on your computer. Now you have to tell the IDE what board you are using, and how you want to connect to it.

In the IDE find the Tools menu. You will use this to select the board. If you switch boards, you must switch the selection! So always double-check before you upload code in a new session.

New Blink Sketch

OK lets make a new blink sketch! From the File menu, select New

Then in the new window, copy and paste this text:

int led = LED_BUILTIN;

void setup() {
  // Some boards work best if we also make a serial connection
  Serial.begin(115200);

  // set LED to be an output pin
  pinMode(led, OUTPUT);
}

void loop() {
  // Say hi!
  Serial.println("Hello!");
  
  digitalWrite(led, HIGH);   // turn the LED on (HIGH is the voltage level)
  delay(500);                // wait for a half second
  digitalWrite(led, LOW);    // turn the LED off by making the voltage LOW
  delay(500);                // wait for a half second
}
Note that in this example, we are not only blinking the LED but also printing to the Serial monitor, think of it as a little bonus to test the serial connection.

One note you'll see is that we reference the LED with the constant LED_BUILTIN rather than a number. That's because, historically, the built in LED was on pin 13 for Arduinos. But in the decades since, boards don't always have a pin 13, or maybe it could not be used for an LED. So the LED could have moved to another pin. It's best to use LED_BUILTIN so you don't get the pin number confused!

The red LED on the Feather ESP32 V2 is available as LED_BUILTIN, as well as 13.

Verify (Compile) Sketch

OK now you can click the Verify button to convert the sketch into binary data to be uploaded to the board.

Note that Verifying a sketch is the same as Compiling a sketch - so we will use the words interchangeably

During verification/compilation, the computer will do a bunch of work to collect all the libraries and code and the results will appear in the bottom window of the IDE

If something went wrong with compilation, you will get red warning/error text in the bottom window letting you know what the error was. It will also highlight the line with an error

For example, here I had the wrong board selected - and the selected board does not have a built in LED!

Here's another common error, in my haste I forgot to add a ; at the end of a line. The compiler warns me that it's looking for one - note that the error is actually a few lines up!

Turning on detailed compilation warnings and output can be very helpful sometimes - Its in Preferences under "Show Verbose Output During:" and check the Compilation button. If you ever need to get help from others, be sure to do this and then provide all the text that is output. It can assist in nailing down what happened!

On success you will see something like this white text output and the message Done compiling. in the message area.

Upload Sketch

Once the code is verified/compiling cleanly you can upload it to your board. Click the Upload button

The IDE will try to compile the sketch again for good measure, then it will try to connect to the board and upload a the file.

This is actually one of the hardest parts for beginners because it's where a lot of things can go wrong.

However, lets start with what it looks like on success! Here's what your board upload process looks like when it goes right:

Often times you will get a warning like this, which is kind of vague:

No device found on COM66 (or whatever port is selected)
An error occurred while uploading the sketch

This could be a few things.

First up, check again that you have the correct board selected! Many electronics boards have very similar names or look, and often times folks grab a board different from what they thought.

Second, make sure you selected the right port! If you have the wrong port or no port selected, Arduino doesn't know where to look for your board.

If both of those are correct, the next step is to enable verbose upload messages.

Before continuing we really really suggest turning on Verbose Upload messages, it will help in this process because you will be able to see what the IDE is trying to do. It's a checkbox in the Preferences menu.

Now you can try uploading again!

This time, you should have success!

After uploading this way, be sure to click the reset button - it sort of makes sure that the board got a good reset and will come back to life nicely.

Finally, a Blink!

OK it was a journey but now we're here and you can enjoy your blinking LED. Next up, try to change the delay between blinks and re-upload. It's a good way to make sure your upload process is smooth and practiced.

This guide was first published on Mar 16, 2022. It was last updated on 2022-03-30 14:56:09 -0400.

This page (Blink) was last updated on May 28, 2022.

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