Note this is not a kernel driver that will let you have the console appear on the eInk. However, this is handy when you want to use the eInk display purely from 'user Python' code!
You can only use this technique with Linux/computer devices that have hardware SPI support, and not all single board computers have an SPI device, so check before continuing

To demonstrate the usage of the display, we'll initialize it and draw some lines from the Python REPL.

Run the following code to import the necessary modules and set up the pin assignments. We set the SRAM CS pin to None because the Raspberry Pi has lots of RAM, so we don't really need it.

import digitalio
import busio
import board
from adafruit_epd.epd import Adafruit_EPD

spi = busio.SPI(board.SCK, MOSI=board.MOSI, MISO=board.MISO)
ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.CE0)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D22)
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D27)
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D17)
srcs = None
Depending on the exact E-Ink display you're using, the driver and object initialization will differ a bit because Python must be told what chip driver to use and the size of the display.

Run the following code to initialize the 2.9" 296x128 Flexible Monochrome display:

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from adafruit_epd.uc8151d import Adafruit_UC8151D
display = Adafruit_UC8151D(128, 296, spi, cs_pin=ecs, dc_pin=dc, sramcs_pin=srcs, rst_pin=rst, busy_pin=busy)
display.set_black_buffer(1, True)
display.set_color_buffer(1, True)

If you have one of the older flexible displays, you can use the following code to initialize it:

from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296, spi, cs_pin=ecs, dc_pin=dc, sramcs_pin=srcs, rst_pin=rst, busy_pin=busy)
display.set_black_buffer(1, False)
display.set_color_buffer(1, False)

Run the following code to initialize the 2.9" 296x128 Tri-Color display:

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from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296, spi, cs_pin=ecs, dc_pin=dc, sramcs_pin=srcs, rst_pin=rst, busy_pin=busy)

Monochrome Example

Now to clear the screen buffer and draw some shapes. Once done drawing, the code must tell the screen to update using the display() method.

display.rotation = 3
display.fill(Adafruit_EPD.WHITE)

display.fill_rect(20, 20, 50, 60, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)
display.hline(80, 30, 60, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)
display.vline(80, 30, 60, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)

display.display()

Tri-Color Example

The Tri-Color example is almost the same as the monochrome example, except another color is added in. Once done drawing, the code needs to tell the screen to update using the display() method.

display.rotation = 3
display.fill(Adafruit_EPD.WHITE)

display.fill_rect(20, 20, 50, 60, Adafruit_EPD.RED)
display.hline(80, 30, 60, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)
display.vline(80, 30, 60, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)

display.display()

Your display will look something like this:

That's all there is to drawing simple shapes with eInk displays and CircuitPython!

Full Example Code

Here is the full example code.

To run the code sample below, you will need to change the pins the same way as you did in the Tri-color Bitmap Example.
# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2021 ladyada for Adafruit Industries
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

import digitalio
import busio
import board
from adafruit_epd.epd import Adafruit_EPD
from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
from adafruit_epd.il91874 import Adafruit_IL91874  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.il0398 import Adafruit_IL0398  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1608 import Adafruit_SSD1608  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1675 import Adafruit_SSD1675  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1680 import Adafruit_SSD1680  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1681 import Adafruit_SSD1681  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.uc8151d import Adafruit_UC8151D  # pylint: disable=unused-import

# create the spi device and pins we will need
spi = busio.SPI(board.SCK, MOSI=board.MOSI, MISO=board.MISO)
ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D12)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D11)
srcs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D10)  # can be None to use internal memory
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D9)  # can be None to not use this pin
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D5)  # can be None to not use this pin

# give them all to our drivers
print("Creating display")
# display = Adafruit_SSD1608(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1675(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1680(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1681(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL91874(176, 264,        # 2.7" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(152, 152,         # 1.54" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_UC8151D(128, 296,        # 2.9" mono flexible display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296,         # 2.9" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0398(400, 300,         # 4.2" Tri-color display
display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display
    spi,
    cs_pin=ecs,
    dc_pin=dc,
    sramcs_pin=srcs,
    rst_pin=rst,
    busy_pin=busy,
)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.13" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, False)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, False)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.9" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, True)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, True)

display.rotation = 1

# clear the buffer
print("Clear buffer")
display.fill(Adafruit_EPD.WHITE)
display.pixel(10, 100, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)

print("Draw Rectangles")
display.fill_rect(5, 5, 10, 10, Adafruit_EPD.RED)
display.rect(0, 0, 20, 30, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)

print("Draw lines")
display.line(0, 0, display.width - 1, display.height - 1, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)
display.line(0, display.height - 1, display.width - 1, 0, Adafruit_EPD.RED)

print("Draw text")
display.text("hello world", 25, 10, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)
display.display()

Bitmap Example

Here's a complete example of how to display a bitmap image on your display. Note that any .bmp image you want to display must be exactly the size of your display. The image below will be used on the 1.54" display. Click the button below to download the image and save it as blinka.bmp on your Raspberry Pi. The code uses a Tri-Color bitmap, but it should still work on a monochrome display.

Save the following code to your Raspberry Pi as epd_bitmap.py.

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2021 ladyada for Adafruit Industries
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

import digitalio
import busio
import board
from adafruit_epd.epd import Adafruit_EPD
from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
from adafruit_epd.il91874 import Adafruit_IL91874  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.il0398 import Adafruit_IL0398  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1608 import Adafruit_SSD1608  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1675 import Adafruit_SSD1675  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1680 import Adafruit_SSD1680  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1681 import Adafruit_SSD1681  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.uc8151d import Adafruit_UC8151D  # pylint: disable=unused-import


# create the spi device and pins we will need
spi = busio.SPI(board.SCK, MOSI=board.MOSI, MISO=board.MISO)
ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D10)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D9)
srcs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D7)  # can be None to use internal memory
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D11)  # can be None to not use this pin
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D12)  # can be None to not use this pin

# give them all to our driver
print("Creating display")
# display = Adafruit_SSD1608(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1675(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1680(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1681(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL91874(176, 264,        # 2.7" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(152, 152,         # 1.54" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_UC8151D(128, 296,        # 2.9" mono flexible display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296,         # 2.9" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0398(400, 300,         # 4.2" Tri-color display
display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display
    spi,
    cs_pin=ecs,
    dc_pin=dc,
    sramcs_pin=srcs,
    rst_pin=rst,
    busy_pin=busy,
)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.13" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, False)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, False)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.9" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, True)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, True)

display.rotation = 0

FILENAME = "blinka.bmp"


def read_le(s):
    # as of this writting, int.from_bytes does not have LE support, DIY!
    result = 0
    shift = 0
    for byte in bytearray(s):
        result += byte << shift
        shift += 8
    return result


class BMPError(Exception):
    pass


def display_bitmap(epd, filename):  # pylint: disable=too-many-locals, too-many-branches
    try:
        f = open(filename, "rb")
    except OSError:
        print("Couldn't open file")
        return

    print("File opened")
    try:
        if f.read(2) != b"BM":  # check signature
            raise BMPError("Not BitMap file")

        bmpFileSize = read_le(f.read(4))
        f.read(4)  # Read & ignore creator bytes

        bmpImageoffset = read_le(f.read(4))  # Start of image data
        headerSize = read_le(f.read(4))
        bmpWidth = read_le(f.read(4))
        bmpHeight = read_le(f.read(4))
        flip = True

        print(
            "Size: %d\nImage offset: %d\nHeader size: %d"
            % (bmpFileSize, bmpImageoffset, headerSize)
        )
        print("Width: %d\nHeight: %d" % (bmpWidth, bmpHeight))

        if read_le(f.read(2)) != 1:
            raise BMPError("Not singleplane")
        bmpDepth = read_le(f.read(2))  # bits per pixel
        print("Bit depth: %d" % (bmpDepth))
        if bmpDepth != 24:
            raise BMPError("Not 24-bit")
        if read_le(f.read(2)) != 0:
            raise BMPError("Compressed file")

        print("Image OK! Drawing...")

        rowSize = (bmpWidth * 3 + 3) & ~3  # 32-bit line boundary

        for row in range(bmpHeight):  # For each scanline...
            if flip:  # Bitmap is stored bottom-to-top order (normal BMP)
                pos = bmpImageoffset + (bmpHeight - 1 - row) * rowSize
            else:  # Bitmap is stored top-to-bottom
                pos = bmpImageoffset + row * rowSize

            # print ("seek to %d" % pos)
            f.seek(pos)
            rowdata = f.read(3 * bmpWidth)
            for col in range(bmpWidth):
                b, g, r = rowdata[3 * col : 3 * col + 3]  # BMP files store RGB in BGR
                if r < 0x80 and g < 0x80 and b < 0x80:
                    epd.pixel(col, row, Adafruit_EPD.BLACK)
                elif r >= 0x80 and g >= 0x80 and b >= 0x80:
                    pass  # epd.pixel(row, col, Adafruit_EPD.WHITE)
                elif r >= 0x80:
                    epd.pixel(col, row, Adafruit_EPD.RED)
    except OSError:
        print("Couldn't read file")
    except BMPError as e:
        print("Failed to parse BMP: " + e.args[0])
    finally:
        f.close()
    print("Finished drawing")


# clear the buffer
display.fill(Adafruit_EPD.WHITE)
display_bitmap(display, FILENAME)
display.display()

Before running it, you will need to change a few pin definitions. Find the section of code that looks like this:

ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D10)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D9)
srcs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D7)    # can be None to use internal memory
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D11)    # can be None to not use this pin
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D12)   # can be None to not use this pin

Change the pins to the following to match the wiring on the Raspberry Pi:

ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.CE0)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D22)
srcs = None
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D27)
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D17)

Next, find the section that looks like this:

# display = Adafruit_SSD1608(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1675(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1680(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1681(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL91874(176, 264,        # 2.7" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(152, 152,         # 1.54" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_UC8151D(128, 296,        # 2.9" mono flexible display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296,         # 2.9" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0398(400, 300,         # 4.2" Tri-color display
display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display
    spi,
    cs_pin=ecs,
    dc_pin=dc,
    sramcs_pin=srcs,
    rst_pin=rst,
    busy_pin=busy,
)

Comment out these lines:

display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display

and uncomment the line that corresponds with your display. 

Next to tell the display the rotation setting desired. This can be a value between 0-3. For the 2.13" displays, a value of 3 seems to work well.

display.rotation = 3

Now go to the command prompt on your Raspberry Pi and run the script with the following command:

python3 epd_bitmap.py

After a few seconds, your display should show an image like this:

Image Drawing with Pillow

This example will use Pillow to resize and crop the image automatically and draw it on the the ePaper Display. Pillow is really powerful and with it you can open and render additional file formats such as PNG or JPG. Let's start with downloading a PNG of blinka that has been adjusted down to 3 colors so it prints nicely on an ePaper Display. This uses a PNG format file because it is a lossless format and won't introduce unexpected colors on the display.

Make sure you save it as blinka.png and place it in the same folder as your script. Here's the code to load onto the Raspberry Pi. Go ahead and copy it onto your Raspberry Pi and save it as epd_pillow_image.py

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2019 Melissa LeBlanc-Williams for Adafruit Industries
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

"""
Image resizing and drawing using the Pillow Library. For the image, check out the
associated Adafruit Learn guide at:
https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-eink-display-breakouts/python-code

"""

import digitalio
import busio
import board
from PIL import Image
from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
from adafruit_epd.il91874 import Adafruit_IL91874  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.il0398 import Adafruit_IL0398  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1608 import Adafruit_SSD1608  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1675 import Adafruit_SSD1675  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1680 import Adafruit_SSD1680  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1681 import Adafruit_SSD1681  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.uc8151d import Adafruit_UC8151D  # pylint: disable=unused-import


# create the spi device and pins we will need
spi = busio.SPI(board.SCK, MOSI=board.MOSI, MISO=board.MISO)
ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.CE0)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D22)
srcs = None
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D27)
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D17)

# give them all to our driver
# display = Adafruit_SSD1608(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1675(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1680(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD Tri-color or mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1681(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL91874(176, 264,        # 2.7" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(152, 152,         # 1.54" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_UC8151D(128, 296,        # 2.9" mono flexible display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296,         # 2.9" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0398(400, 300,         # 4.2" Tri-color display
display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display
    spi,
    cs_pin=ecs,
    dc_pin=dc,
    sramcs_pin=srcs,
    rst_pin=rst,
    busy_pin=busy,
)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.13" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, False)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, False)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.9" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, True)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, True)

display.rotation = 1

image = Image.open("blinka.png")

# Scale the image to the smaller screen dimension
image_ratio = image.width / image.height
screen_ratio = display.width / display.height
if screen_ratio < image_ratio:
    scaled_width = image.width * display.height // image.height
    scaled_height = display.height
else:
    scaled_width = display.width
    scaled_height = image.height * display.width // image.width
image = image.resize((scaled_width, scaled_height), Image.BICUBIC)

# Crop and center the image
x = scaled_width // 2 - display.width // 2
y = scaled_height // 2 - display.height // 2
image = image.crop((x, y, x + display.width, y + display.height)).convert("RGB")

# Convert to Monochrome and Add dithering
# image = image.convert("1").convert("L")

# Display image.
display.image(image)
display.display()

The code starts with library imports including a couple of Pillow modules and the ePaper display drivers.

import digitalio
import busio
import board
from PIL import Image, ImageDraw
from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
from adafruit_epd.il91874 import Adafruit_IL91874
from adafruit_epd.il0398 import Adafruit_IL0398
from adafruit_epd.ssd1608 import Adafruit_SSD1608
from adafruit_epd.ssd1675 import Adafruit_SSD1675
from adafruit_epd.ssd1680 import Adafruit_SSD1680
from adafruit_epd.ssd1681 import Adafruit_SSD1681
from adafruit_epd.uc8151d import Adafruit_UC8151D

That is followed by initializing the SPI bus and defining a few pins. The choices allow you to use the same code with the EPD bonnets, if you chose to do so.

spi = busio.SPI(board.SCK, MOSI=board.MOSI, MISO=board.MISO)
ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.CE0)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D22)
srcs = None
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D27)
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D17)

These examples work on as many displays as possible with very few changes. The older 2.13" Tri-color display is selected by default. For other displays, go ahead and comment out the following lines:

display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display

and uncomment the line appropriate for your display. 

#display = Adafruit_SSD1608(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD mono display
#display = Adafruit_SSD1675(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD mono display
#display = Adafruit_SSD1680(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD Tri-color display
#display = Adafruit_SSD1681(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD Tri-color display
#display = Adafruit_IL91874(176, 264,        # 2.7" Tri-color display
#display = Adafruit_IL0373(152, 152,         # 1.54" Tri-color display
#display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296,         # 2.9" Tri-color display
#display = Adafruit_IL0398(400, 300,         # 4.2" Tri-color display
display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display
    spi,
    cs_pin=ecs,
    dc_pin=dc,
    sramcs_pin=srcs,
    rst_pin=rst,
    busy_pin=busy
)

Next change the rotation setting to 3.

display.rotation = 3

Next is to open the Blinka image, which is named blinka.png, and it is assumed the file is in the same directory that you are running the script from. Feel free to change it if it doesn't match your configuration.

image = Image.open("blinka.png")

Here's where it starts to get interesting. It is desirable to scale the image so that it matches either the width or height of the display, depending on which is smaller, so that there may be some of the image to chop off when it is cropped. Start by calculating the width to height ratio of both the display and the image. If the height is the closer of the dimensions, you want to match the image height to the display height and let it be a bit wider than the display. Otherwise, you want to do the opposite.

Once you've figured out how to scale it, pass in the new dimensions and using a Bicubic rescaling method, the code reassigns the newly rescaled image back to image. Pillow has quite a few different methods to choose from, but Bicubic does a great job and is reasonably fast.

Nearest actually gives a little better result with the Tri-color eInks, but loses detail with displaying a color image on the monochrome display, so this code uses the best balance.

image_ratio = image.width / image.height
screen_ratio = display.width / display.height
if screen_ratio < image_ratio:
    scaled_width = image.width * display.height // image.height
    scaled_height = display.height
else:
    scaled_width = display.width
    scaled_height = image.height * display.width // image.width
image = image.resize((scaled_width, scaled_height), Image.BICUBIC)

Next to figure the starting x and y points of the image to begin cropping so that the image ends up centered. Do that by using a standard centering function, which is basically requesting the difference of the center of the display and the center of the image. Just like with scaling, replace the image variable with the newly cropped image.

x = scaled_width // 2 - display.width // 2
y = scaled_height // 2 - display.height // 2
image = image.crop((x, y, x + display.width, y + display.height)).convert("RGB")

Finally, take the image, draw it to the frame buffer and display it. At this point, the image should have the exact same dimensions at the display and fill it completely.

display.image(image)
display.display()

Now go to the command prompt on your Raspberry Pi and run the script with the following command:

python3 epd_pillow_image.py

After a few seconds, your display should show this image:

Drawing Shapes and Text with Pillow

The next example takes a look at drawing shapes and text. This is very similar to the displayio example, but it uses Pillow instead. Go ahead and copy it onto your Raspberry Pi and save it as epd_pillow_demo.py. Here's the code for that.

# SPDX-FileCopyrightText: 2019 Melissa LeBlanc-Williams for Adafruit Industries
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

"""
ePaper Display Shapes and Text demo using the Pillow Library.

"""

import digitalio
import busio
import board
from PIL import Image, ImageDraw, ImageFont
from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
from adafruit_epd.il91874 import Adafruit_IL91874  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.il0398 import Adafruit_IL0398  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1608 import Adafruit_SSD1608  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1675 import Adafruit_SSD1675  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1680 import Adafruit_SSD1680  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.ssd1681 import Adafruit_SSD1681  # pylint: disable=unused-import
from adafruit_epd.uc8151d import Adafruit_UC8151D  # pylint: disable=unused-import

# First define some color constants
WHITE = (0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF)
BLACK = (0x00, 0x00, 0x00)
RED = (0xFF, 0x00, 0x00)

# Next define some constants to allow easy resizing of shapes and colors
BORDER = 20
FONTSIZE = 24
BACKGROUND_COLOR = BLACK
FOREGROUND_COLOR = WHITE
TEXT_COLOR = RED

# create the spi device and pins we will need
spi = busio.SPI(board.SCK, MOSI=board.MOSI, MISO=board.MISO)
ecs = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.CE0)
dc = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D22)
srcs = None
rst = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D27)
busy = digitalio.DigitalInOut(board.D17)

# give them all to our driver
# display = Adafruit_SSD1608(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1675(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1680(122, 250,        # 2.13" HD Tri-color or mono display
# display = Adafruit_SSD1681(200, 200,        # 1.54" HD Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL91874(176, 264,        # 2.7" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(152, 152,         # 1.54" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_UC8151D(128, 296,        # 2.9" mono flexible display
# display = Adafruit_IL0373(128, 296,         # 2.9" Tri-color display
# display = Adafruit_IL0398(400, 300,         # 4.2" Tri-color display
display = Adafruit_IL0373(
    104,
    212,  # 2.13" Tri-color display
    spi,
    cs_pin=ecs,
    dc_pin=dc,
    sramcs_pin=srcs,
    rst_pin=rst,
    busy_pin=busy,
)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.13" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, False)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, False)

# IF YOU HAVE A 2.9" FLEXIBLE DISPLAY uncomment these lines!
# display.set_black_buffer(1, True)
# display.set_color_buffer(1, True)

display.rotation = 1

image = Image.new("RGB", (display.width, display.height))

# Get drawing object to draw on image.
draw = ImageDraw.Draw(image)

# Draw a filled box as the background
draw.rectangle((0, 0, display.width - 1, display.height - 1), fill=BACKGROUND_COLOR)

# Draw a smaller inner foreground rectangle
draw.rectangle(
    (BORDER, BORDER, display.width - BORDER - 1, display.height - BORDER - 1),
    fill=FOREGROUND_COLOR,
)

# Load a TTF Font
font = ImageFont.truetype("/usr/share/fonts/truetype/dejavu/DejaVuSans.ttf", FONTSIZE)

# Draw Some Text
text = "Hello World!"
(font_width, font_height) = font.getsize(text)
draw.text(
    (display.width // 2 - font_width // 2, display.height // 2 - font_height // 2),
    text,
    font=font,
    fill=TEXT_COLOR,
)

# Display image.
display.image(image)
display.display()

Just like in the last example, use the imports, but this time include the ImageDraw and ImageFont Pillow modules to allow text rendering.

import digitalio
import busio
import board
from PIL import Image, ImageDraw, ImageFont
from adafruit_epd.il0373 import Adafruit_IL0373
from adafruit_epd.il91874 import Adafruit_IL91874
from adafruit_epd.il0398 import Adafruit_IL0398
from adafruit_epd.ssd1608 import Adafruit_SSD1608
from adafruit_epd.ssd1675 import Adafruit_SSD1675
from adafruit_epd.ssd1680 import Adafruit_SSD1680
from adafruit_epd.ssd1681 import Adafruit_SSD1681
from adafruit_epd.uc8151d import Adafruit_UC8151D

Next to define some colors that can be used with Pillow.

WHITE = (0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF)
BLACK = (0x00, 0x00, 0x00)
RED = (0xFF, 0x00, 0x00)

After that, create some parameters that are easy to change. If you had a smaller display for instance, you could reduce the FONTSIZE and BORDER parameters. The BORDER will be the size in pixels of the green border between the edge of the display and the inner purple rectangle. The FONTSIZE will be the size of the font in points so that it can adjust easily for different displays. You could play around with the colors as well. One thing to note is that on monochrome displays, RED will show up as BLACK.

For the 1.54" display, a BORDER value of 10 and a FONTSIZE value of 20 looks good.

BORDER = 10
FONTSIZE = 20
BACKGROUND_COLOR = BLACK
FOREGROUND_COLOR = WHITE
TEXT_COLOR = RED

After that, the initializer and rotation sections are exactly the same as in the previous example. If you have are using a different display than the 2.13" Tri-color, go ahead and adjust your initializer as explained in the previous example. After that, create an image with the dimensions and use that to create a draw object.  The draw object will have all of the drawing functions.

image = Image.new('RGB', (display.width, display.height))

draw = ImageDraw.Draw(image)

Next clear whatever is on the screen by drawing a rectangle using the BACKGROUND_COLOR that takes up the full screen.

draw.rectangle((0, 0, display.width, display.height), fill=BACKGROUND_COLOR)

Next to draw an inner rectangle using the FOREGROUND_COLOR. Use the BORDER parameter to calculate the size and position to draw the rectangle.

draw.rectangle((BORDER, BORDER, display.width - BORDER - 1, display.height - BORDER - 1),
               fill=FOREGROUND_COLOR)

Next to load a TTF font. The DejaVuSans.ttf font should come preloaded on your Pi in the location in the code. This will also make use of the FONTSIZE parameter discussed earlier.

font = ImageFont.truetype('/usr/share/fonts/truetype/dejavu/DejaVuSans.ttf', FONTSIZE)

Now to draw the text Hello World onto the center of the display. You may recognize the centering calculation was the same one used to center crop the image in the previous example. In this example though, the font size values are obtained using the getsize() function of the font object.

text = "Hello World!"
(font_width, font_height) = font.getsize(text)
draw.text((display.width//2 - font_width//2, display.height//2 - font_height//2),
          text, font=font, fill=TEXT_COLOR)

Finally, just like before, display the image.

display.image(image)
display.display()

Now go to the command prompt on your Raspberry Pi and run the script with the following command:

python3 epd_pillow_demo.py

After a few seconds, your display should show this image:

This guide was first published on Sep 22, 2021. It was last updated on 2021-09-22 11:49:54 -0400.

This page (Python Usage) was last updated on Sep 22, 2021.

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